The VC Bar

Welcome to the Volcano Café bar, a place for all things on or off topic and inane ramblings. There has been a need of late to find a place better suited to various theories, long comments and enthusiasm. This page will be less moderated than the main article pages and cleared out every month (this may change depending on use).

Have fun and don’t forget to tip the barman 😉

2,895 thoughts on “The VC Bar

    • The active part of the lake is rising again now that it is smaller in area, up a few meters from yesterday to 194 meters deep. I would guess the dome fountain was because the outlet of the tube was submerged only a small distance, but now that outlet is deeper with the lake rise and the extra pressure is easier to erupt out the top of the cone.

      For a sustained eruption at this point the eruption rate is pretty high and there has been no overall deflation since the end of the year. The supply must be higher than it was before 2018, in the same range as the activity in the early 19th century.

      I do hope we see a high fountaining eruption, something like the golden pumice. Jesper has asked what the 2011 eruption of Grimsvotn would look like without ice… 🙂

  1. Media was saying the Caribbean was getting active, anyone know what’s actually happening

    • Its not really, pretty normal. It is probably because of the notoriety of what happened in 1902 that is why the area is getting attention. Having Pelee and St Vincent at elevated alert, and then one of them erupting, is better than the average volcano title, even if in all likelyhood this eruption will be harmless. A future eruption at Pelee will never be as bad as it was in 1902, St Pierre is much smaller today and no doubt will be evacuated at onset of eruption.

  2. Wow Everest mountain complex summit is almost 9000 meters above sealevel. Thats why the oxygen is so low there.. infact the mountain haves the infamous ”death zone” humans are not evolved for being at jet heights

    Umm Everest is getting crowded .. during the climbing season dozens a day try for it. Climbing as high as the jetliners fly. Taking on Mount Everest is among the most dangerous pursuits in the world! Human beings aren’t evolved to function at the cruising altitude of a 747. The mountain is getting crowded by waste, dead bodies and leftovers and tons of excremenent and food scraps. I knows that 11 persons died in 2019 climbing season.

    How long woud it take for me to die,
    IF I was left without oxygen at the summit and not – acclimatized?

    Strangely some birds haves no problems at flying at 11 000 meters

    • Woud not supprise me at all if Himalayas will get up to 10 000 meters in the geological future and there certainly been taller mountain ranges than Everest in the geological past of the Earth

    • Birds have more efficient lungs, their respiratory system goes through their bones too, and this was the case of all bird line archosaurs. This respiratory and skeletal system is something that mammals have not yet been able to replicate despite true mammals first evolving at a similar time to dinosaurs and therapsids that were very similar to mammals existing since the mid Permian.

      There is a trade off to this though, birds are highly sensitive to atmospheric toxins, all of those tropicbirds flying above Halemaumau are dancing with death.

    • Everest is rapidly becomming unsanitary…because of climbing becomming common. the cold temperatures prevents microbial breakdown of dead bodies and human excrement.. everything is in deep freeze, with bacteria inactive.

      I read that 20 000 kilos of frozen poop was removed from Everest very recently : ) the crew describes the weight like two very large Savannah elephants. And enormous ammounts of other waste too.

      The mountain is full of corpses too from fallen climbers .. they sleep and never wakes up. Most have never been brought down … they will be frozen for millions of years.. no decomposition.

      • I wouldn’t be terribly surprised if Everest ended up being declared completely off-limits to climbers in the near future by both Nepal and China (remember Everest straddles the Nepali-Chinese border).

        I know there are a number of peaks in the Himalayas there are totally off-limits. This is especially true in Nepal’s neighbour, Bhutan, where all peaks above 6,000 m (~19,680 ft) are off-limits according to the government. But this is due to spiritual/holy beliefs rather than environmental reasons.

      • The frozen corpse of
        ”green boots”
        He is frozen for ethernity in perfect flesh condition.
        His gut bacteria is frozen so he cannot decompose. He is a major landmark on an Everest hike. 100 persons every year see him and 10 persons a year goes the same fate. In 1996 ”Green Boots” died on Everest. The thin air robs your brain of oxygen and you shuts down…

        you may never wake up or be able to walk if you gets tired at the summit

      • When you die .. your intestine bacteria instantly start to break you down.. when immune system de – activates.. goes very quickly, your body feast for your own bacteria.. and you are very quickly recycled back to nature

        But on Mount Everest in that cold.. all your cells and bacteria are frozen and inactive.. and decomposition cannot happen in the body. Everest victims are preserved in cold storage for a very very long time indeed..

  3. Hmm, I don’t know about that, as long as Earth continues to undergo its current period of glaciation, which could last for at least 15-20 million years from now.

    But the Himalayas could have been even higher than today during the early to mid-Miocene (21-14 Mya), during the Early Miocene warm period, before glaciation began intensifying about 8 Mya. The highest peaks could have been up to at least 35,000, or even over 40,000 feet high (~9145-12192 m) during that time! Whoa!

    • I don’t know what on earth this is doing here. This was supposed to be a reply to Jesper Sandberg’s comment on the Himalayas getting higher in the future:

      Woud not supprise me at all if Himalayas will get up to 10 000 meters in the geological future and there certainly been taller mountain ranges than Everest in the geological past of the Earth

    • Better to close off Everest competely.. tens of tons of human waste there that needs to be removed! it accumulating over the decades… as JS say

      • Right .. there is so much crap buried in the snow there, that you cannot set up a base camp without sleeping on others waste. Tons of it around all mountain camps, luckly its all frozen but still a major biological hazard.

        Around 66 tons of it maybe around the mountain camps, buried in the snows before the major cleanups began.

        Everest is also full of gabrage and trash and food scraps and plastic waste.. because of
        ”distasteful humans”

        But luckly the crews there are doing a fantastic job of cleaning up Everest, many tens of tons of waste and trash, been carried off the mountain since 2019 I think.

  4. At a glance, I know some of this is false but I call upon you for some aid, recently the Nation of Islam has made lecture concerning the new covid 19 vaccine. I couldn’t care less what is thought of new vaccine but there are some bold claims in this lecture that haven’t been substantiated with sources. I would like some help debunking some of it as it grows in popularity.
    Some (A lot) will it find offensive so gear up!

      • Is there a transcript ?
        The scrap I watched before my wits went ’tilt’ totally matched the wilder notions our media’s been debunking almost daily…

        • Unfortunately there isn’t any transcript as far as I know, so it might be better to take the lecture in smaller pieces. I have built up a high tolerance for this level of unsubstantiated and crazy statements.

      • Can’t speak for each vaccine but given the amount of medical professionals involved in creating and administering it (and i’m assuming people have deconstructed it) if it did have anything nefarious in it such as a viral vector (or a tracker – I mean come on, you’ve got a phone) I would think it would have been detected.
        Not sure why it would be likely to cause harm to black people in particular or how that would work, there’s very few physiological differences between white and black people save for melanin in skin and genetic adaptations to our ancestors environments. (Hope I am using the right terms here – please correct me if not)
        If the vaccine included something that only harmed poor people then it might be more believable.

        • Aside from several infamous, well documented medical ‘oops’, there’s been some ‘false flag’ stuff.

          The MMR vaccine is a horrible example. IIRC, the ‘autism’ scare’s starter had undisclosed links with a company making the individual vaccines, stood to earn a lot of money.

          IIRC, the CIA’s hunt for a certain well-known villain across the Tribal regions of Pakistan used genuine health care provision as a way to do genetic sampling, trace kin-links…
          To put it politely, that rather fouled the well…

          Beyond that, there’s the problem with faith-based authority figures feeling undercut, or having an exceedingly narrow world-view. IS and other ‘fundamentalist’ sects are grim examples. IIRC, they see their people as Male = Warriors and Female = Baby machines. ‘Full Quiver’ evangelists complete the full arc of such aberrant ‘horseshoe’ geometry. Neither extreme grouping welcome technology, education or even health-care beyond the minimal. Except, of course, for ‘cadre’…

          Given the number of people who cling to notions such as ‘Moon Landings Were Faked’, ‘Flat Earth’, chemtrails, the mind-blowing qanon conspiracy bundle, now augmented by the vocal ‘WE WUZ ROBBBBBED’ crowd, is no wonder many people trust no-one outside their chosen echo chamber.

          The snag with teaching people to apply scientific thought processes to an issue is it may unleash an avalanche of falsification upon so much else…

  5. A magnitude 4 quake down in the mantle under Hawaii, part of the Pahala swarm. It shook up the tiltmeter at HVO, which usually only quakes much closer to the caldera can do…

    What looked like a DI event has also transitioned directly into continuous inflation, and the eruption is still sustained low fountaining with an open channel, the lake is about 200 meters deep now.

      • It is interesting how many of these lakes form islands, though probably none of them have the backstory that the main island in todays lake does.

        Lava lake is 200 meters deep now, the pressure at the bottom is like being 700 meters underwater. There was inflation at the JOKA station early last year so magma can flow freely that far, how much pressure is needed to force magma up to the surface from there?
        At current Pu’u O’o is not pressurised so there doesnt seem to be any imminent ERZ event but the summit inflation is ongoing, this might change on short notice. The tilt is still showing inflation.

  6. Interesting little swarm in the eastern part of South Iceland Seismic Zone, just west of Hekla. This is one of the places where it has been suggested that the next M6-7 might happen (another place is west of Hengill, in the other end of the SISZ). The earthquakes in 2000 and 2008 only released about half the strain built up since the last large earthquake sequence in 1896-1912, so there is potential for more large quakes in the near future.

    • Will be interesting to see if this triggers an eruption along the fissure swarm like in 1913.

      I have been trying to map out all of the basaltic vents in the Hekla area and their age, theres not a lot of data and most have margins of error that will make you pause and look twice, but it does at least seem like the hard shutdown during the historic period is not actually a thing, most prehistoric eruptions were also small and there have been at least 5 fissure swarm eruptions since 1104, and a 6th in the century before that.
      Some of the bigger mid Holocene eruptions also happened from the same fissure Hekla has formed on and their vent is likely buried by it, so it is pretty much impossible that Hekla isnt connected to the basaltic volcanism at depth. Its different magma must be coming from a second source that is flowing into the area from the north and overriding the local source, and which has probably increased over time to the present. I would take a guess that if Hekla erupted long enough it would eventually erupt the same basalt as the rest of the fissure swarm, but an eruption that big is probably not possible today so we are left to wonder…

      This area is my number two pick of the next big effusive eruption this century too so best keep watching 🙂

  7. Currently reading up on double divergent subduction, like that of the Molucca Sea. A rare and strange situation where subduction is occuring on both sides and an arc-collision is inevitable. This is also happening to the Adriatic plate but there isn’t a great deal of volcanism on the Croatian side.

    Here’s the ramifications for magma production:
    Partial melting of mantle generate mafic dyke intrusion. Because the mantle is the primary source, these dykes record isotopic characteristics of the depleted mantle in which the 87Sr/86Sr ratio is near 0.703 and samarium-neodymium dating is positive.[2] On the other hand, partial melting of the lower crust (accretionary complex) leads to S-type granitoid intrusions with enriched aluminium oxide throughout the evolution of divergent double subduction.[2][6]

    When the oceanic plate detaches from the overlying crust, intense decompressional melting of mantle is induced. Large amount of hot basaltic magma intrude and melt the crust which generate rhyolitic melt.[6][2] This results in alternating eruption of basaltic and rhyolitic lava.

  8. Theres a second lava river going into the lake at Kilauea now. Theres a picture from a few days ago of this happening in the day, and theres been a few other flows out of this second vent, but now the second flow is a lot more robust and comparable to the original flow.

    • What woud Big Islands climate be like if Hawaii was on the equator? I know that there are already something like 12 climate zones there on Hawaii Island.

      But Hawaii is quite a distance from the equator in the northen tropical trade wind belts.. means a wet and dry side. Hawaii is in tropical Lat 20.

      On equator its competely convective and no trade winds.
      And perhaps Big Island woud lack a dry zone on Kona if it was located at latitude 0.
      I think Hawaii woud be even greener located there

      Woud Hawaii be even warmer at the equatorial equator?

      Iceland Hotspot on the equatorial MAR woud also be a very diffrent Island!

      • All equatorial volcanic Islands and volcanoes are very green indeed..

        But Hawaii haves indeed very strong mountain Orographic precipitation on wet sides making it as green as Congo at Hamakua coast.

        With no dry zone caused by lack of trade winds in equator.. I guess the entire Island woud be green as heck

        • Chain of craters road woud be deep pit lakes at Latitude 0 with millions of carpfish brought there by the polynesians : )

      • Saõ Tomé Island outside Gabon is analougous in climate for your fictional scenario..indeed a completely dark green Hawaii

      • Temperature wise a bit hotter but not very much IF Hawaii was located at Lat 0

        Mostly the weather woud be very much more convective with Big intra – tropical convergence zone oceanic thunderstorms.. Kailua Kona and Kohala deserts woud be as green as Congo if Hawaii was at that location.

        No hurricanes either


    It has been long enough now that the GPS has updated a bit, it still looks to be on an upward trend, same rate as between June and December 2020. At this rate it recover the drop from the start of the eruption in about August if things stay stable, which is impressive for a volcano that is already erupting.

    HVO hasnt said anything about eruption rate for a long time and SO2 has been stable for weeks, so it is probably still at about 10 m3/s. The lake is at about 30 million m3 now, after adding another 7 months at the current rate it could reach a volume of over 0.2 km3, which is about as big as the entire volume of the Mauna Ulu eruption according to official HVO numbers. Way before that though if the lake ‘only’ doubles in volume to about 60-70 million m3 it will begin to flood the vent, which at this rate will be in about 40 days or early March. Maybe this is when we get a big lava geyser, but really anything could happen.

    • You mean the caldera length, not the GPS upward movement. The GPS’s on the south side of the caldera are still going down (marginally). The one on the north side may be going up a bit. All are still 5 cm below the pre-eruption level and in no hurry to fix this. If inflation resumes at the pre-eruption level, then indeed it could recover in 6 months. But that has not started yet.

      • Those south caldera stations record deeper magma storage, the one on the home page does correlate with inflation of the shallow storage which is why I talk of it moving upward even though it is a distance across not vertical movement. It is set up to mirror the tilt and record activity of the shallow system above about 4 km depth which includes the connection to the rifts.

        Since June the supply increased and a lot of magma accumulated in the deeper storage space which is the big vertical spike in those south caldera stations. The fall after the eruption has not returned to the level it was in June yet so there is still pressure in the deep system. This area isnt really a magma chamber it is probably the same olivine crystal mush as the deep rift but with a higher melt fraction from being above the deep conduit.

          • Indeed and the other vent is back to normal, it must be a shallow connection. HVO said it was first observed after a piece of cone fell into the vent but that didnt look to be the cause of the recent episode.


    Direct link to satelite

    Loots of melting near Grimsvötn caldera edge.. glacial lakes are growing and seems to grown alot since last year.
    This is increasing geothermal heating from expanding upper magma body. It looks like the next eruption coud be larger and more long lived ( and slower ) than 2011. Perhaps it will last long enough to build up a Surtsey in the caldera lake.

    Infact all Grimsvötn caldera eruptions is a surtsey pheratoplinian at the beginning. But the historical ones shut off before they became effusive lava. It happens in an ocean of thick ice, but otherwise same as sea eruptions

    • Its the 2011 hole thats by 2021 become an growing ice lake with very large sulfur emissions, the caldera walls there been heating up too with over a 100 C in many cracks.
      Is an open conduit forming here? Grimsvötn was certainly not like this in between and before 1998 and 2004

      • Can you really see the lake in that picture? The blue part that looks like water is actually the shadow from the south caldera wall.

        Cool link anyway. You can see a lot of interesting features, like the ice cauldrons along the Bárðarbunga caldera rim, or the fact that the Holuhraun lava field is basically free of snow so probably still quite warm.

        • I can send more photos over FB messenger later …

          Grimsvötn is amazing now and how this massive system is heating up. Grimsvötn have become really warm and gassy during the last 6 years.

          The magma chamber in Grimsvötn is extremely shallow.. just 1700 meters below the caldera. Thats as shallow as many other open conduit lava lake volcanoes.

          The next eruption maybe a Surtsey Island in the caldera of Grimsvötn

      • It is an open lake…
        Just its surface frozen sligthly in winter storms.

        Here is the edge of that open lake.. with ice falling into the lake as slab cracks.
        Grimsvötn did not have this open lakes in 1998 and 2004 probaly is a sourge of magma supply. Perhaps its forming a pathway up.. since very large sulfur output been apparently measured.,B02,B03&maxcc=20&gain=1.0&gamma=1.0&time=2020-07-01%7C2021-01-19&atmFilter=&showDates=false

      • It is disappointing, but most of the ‘lake’ is a shadow, only the bit that is on the left side seems to be water. There is also ice at the bottom, it is melting but it is barely keeping up with the flow of ice from outside, as for it being new and previously not seen Vatnajokull has also melted a lot since the 90s.
        Grismvotn isnt really the sort of volcano to do long lived eruptions anyway, it appears to be similar to the Galapagos calderas where eruptions are fast and brief, more or less high frequency and typically not that big. Bardarbunga seems more suited to do shields, as does Askja, both much more so than Grimsvotn.

        Grimsvotn to me has been hyped up too much, now we are all expecting the eruption of the century only a 5th of the way through (and only a decade after its biggest eruption in over 2 centuries). It is like Katla in 2011 where everyone was expecting a VEI 6 for some reason when Katla hasnt had an eruption anywhere near that size since before Eldgja. Neither are the sort of volcanoes their reputation holds them to be with a few rare exceptions, the key word being rare. 2011 may well have been one of those rare exceptions, so to expect another is compounding a rare thing with another rare thing. Bardarbunga does the big effusive eruptions, but it has already done so for this cycle so it is also out.

        The 3rd option is where we should be looking. Hekla changed in the 20th century, its magma supply doubled, its magma became more mafic, and its eruptions became more frequent by an order of magnitude. Hekla erupts just as much lava every year as Etna, but it is going on 22 years now since it last erupted which is the longest such interval since 1970 when the new activity became prominent, one can imagine if Etna didnt erupt for 20 years…

        • It is an open lake JS is correct.. its just covered with a thin layer of ice in winter… the ice shelf itself can be seen crumbling into the glacial lake.. look closely

  11. It is a water lake.. just covered in winter ice. Here is the cracked wall of the ice shelf.. north of the shadow..,B02,B03&maxcc=20&gain=1.0&gamma=1.0&time=2020-07-01%7C2021-01-19&atmFilter=&showDates=false

    And here is the glacial lake in Grimsvötn seen by helicopter shot.. image 4 in the photo slider .. its melting alot by the increasing geothermal heat

  12. There is another DI event ongoing at Kilauea, the lake has pretty much entirely stagnated even near the vent. it might even entirely pause for a day or so and then restart when the inflation resumes.

    • This is quite a strong DI event, it’s surprising how fast the lake froze in reaction to the event, and all over its surface. The fountain seems to still be alive but pressure keeps falling.

      • HVO Volcano Watch today was about the lava composition, it is not new lava from depth but the same as the overlook crater stuff. It seems the stuff that was causing all of the deep inflation has not reached the surface yet, so future activity might see hotter and more gas rich lava.

        The DI event seems just recently to have reached its bottom, and started to go back up.

        • The new stuff doesn’t get to the surface, it mixes with the other magma in the storage zones, and the new magma still comes from storage that is just a little deeper.

          The only volcanoes at which magma can rise to the surface retaining its primitive composition is at some volcanic fields that only have storage in the mantle.

          Major differences in composition usually arise from the different parts of the volcano that eruption tap into. Eruptions with cold sticky lavas usually tap magma reservoirs in the far end of the rift conduits, that seldom get resupplied, like the early lavas of the 2018 eruption that came from the reservoir under the JOKA station, or the lava of Fissure 17 which came from a reservoir under the Puna Geothermal Venture.

          Eruptions with fluid, hotter than usual lavas, like Keaiwa, Kilauea Iki, or the fissures at the southern caldera rim, probably feed from deep levels of summit storage. The Kilauea Iki 1959 eruption was located in an area that just sagged slightly during the 1500-1790 collapses, a magma storage deeper than the ERZ connection which did completely fall apart during those collapses more than once. That’s possibly why the Kilauea Ikl magmas were more primitive or more gas rich.

        • The magma chamber is large and only lost a fraction in the 2018 eruption. New magma has been added but still much less than what was lost. The eruption will continue to have the composition of the magma chamber. Fissure can source from near the bottom of the chamber, but summit eruptions do not.

    • This is old stoored magma from the summit resovair.. yet so very fluid

      A fresh batch from the volcanos depths woud perhaps erupt at well over 1300 C and erupt as Iki fountains or taller

      Kilauea haves a very large summit magma stoorage and allows for sligthly cooling and lots of degassing of large ammounts of melt. Still its erupting at perhaps 1170 C today.

      • The study in the article regards only tephra collected on day one, it actually makes no mention of later samples. Given the longevity and volume of the eruption so far I expect lava now is likely to contain some level of deep signature, the widespread inflation from the deeper source reversed with the eruption so whatever magma was doing that found an outlet.

        This is though definitely a story that will be followed up on.

    • See above, there is a deflation-inflation event ongoing, during Pu’u O’o activity often paused during the deflation and resumed again when inflation restarted. The current one has just reversed back to inflation so it would be expected the eruption rate will increase significantly in the coming days. It might do this frequently from now on, all it really shows is the system is in equilibrium at the moment, so this eruption is likely to last a long time.

      It is also not as likely but still possible that the intervals between eruptions increase into discrete episodes, like at Pu’u O’o in the 1980s. This would be long enough that pressure could really build up, resulting in possibly much higher fountains.

  13. Grimsvötn caldera year 2023…
    If we are lucky: A larger and slower longer lived eruption maybe a possibilty with all the accumulated magma. Perhaps lasting long enough to build up an effusive Island in the meltwater lakes. All Grimsvötn eruptions are the start of a potential glacial surtsey Island, but most never makes it beyond the initial pheratoplinian – surtseyan stage.
    Another scenario for next eruption is just another brutaly fast VEI 4. But perhaps the next eruption will be the upper scenario.

    In year 1784 just after Laki a red glow was apparently. spotted over Grimsvötn caldera summit.. and it erupted during Laki too and 1785 I think. This is signs that there was a very long lived caldera eruption .. that built an caldera Island and became effusive lava.

    But the next eruption coud also be .. just some pheratomagmatic bursts that last a day… who knows

    • Skafta fires included rifts under the glacier too, and given how remote the area is and what had just happened to the population I would not place any bets on the certainty of the glow being at Grimsvotn itself it could have been anywhere in that part of the glacier.

      If there is an eruption this year and it is a normal south caldera fault eruption it will max out at 0.1 km3 because it is just a pressure release and that is how much magma a decade supply is. This could still be a VEI 4 but nowhere near 2011. If it is outside the caldera it could be bigger but the ice is thicker too so in all likeliness a flank eruption will do nothing at all. If the eruption doesnt happen for another 10 years then another 2011 is much more plausible, but then we also have to wait 10 years… Thordarhyna is possibly capable of a much more sizable eruption but I dont know anything about its history so I wont comment further on it here.

      As I have said Hekla is the volcano to watch for another major eruption, and possibly Oraefajokull if it keeps at it, rhyolite volcanoes are rare and tend to make their presence known. If Greip is an actual thing then if it decides to erupt through an intrusion into Grimsvotn it could get interesting, but that would require a rifting event, Grimsvotn doesnt rift often and its last event was as major as you can get… 🙂

    • Oh, dear…

      Given the recent discovery of ‘Old Deep Blobs’ of sundry provenance plus, um, complications produced when peripatetic hot-spot-ish whatsits leave lonnng trails or up-grade ordinary suture zones or ‘spreading ridges’ unto ‘locally lively’, it’s time to ‘Break Out The Pop-Corn’ !!!

    • Well that’s a heated argument. If I ever write an article about this, which I probably will, it will lean closer to the plate theory actually. The vast majority intraplate volcanism is probably due to extension, and the Afar Traps were probably set off by the reactivation of Makran subduction which pulled Arabia towards Asia.

      However anybody who knows Hawaii closely (or Yellowstone, or Iceland) knows there is “something” in the mantle beneath that doesn’t care much about what plates are doing. The idea of extension fails to explain how a spot that is only 50-100 km across turns into an absolute beast of melt production (Hawaii produces about 100,000 m3/km2/year, in contrast even a flood basalt may only get to 1,500 m3/km2/year since they affect far bigger areas), and then goes on unabated for tens of millions of years without depleting that location of all its meltable material.

      • None of this really explains volcanism outside the earth, Mars and Io have no plates, Venus has rifts but its not total. At least Io has massive volcanism and Venus I expect is probably comparable to the earth. We have only had continuous observation of Venus for 20 years or so and to actually see something through its atmosphere you need a major eruption and to be in the right place to see it.

      • Fair arguments, the LLSVPs (whether slab graveyards or not) must have something to do with this excessive production. What caused the antipodal pacific & african LLSVPs whether it’s the eccentricity of earth or impact events is still debatable of course.
        Definitely more melt available in those 2 areas than elsewhere though.

      • Think it’s also worth mentioning the Basin & Range areas and Mt Baekdu are caused by long-past subduction of slabs that haven’t dipped into the mantle and disappeared for eternity. How much other intraplate volcanism is down to subduction long gone? Mt. Elbrus could be for instance.

        • I can think of quite a few more volcanoes/volcanic regions likely generated by that kind of subduction. The Wrangell volcanoes in southern Alaska come to mind, with its massive mostly andesitic shield volcanoes like Wrangell and Sanford, as well as the stratovolcanoes Mt. Drum and Churchill.

          During the Eocene, areas of volcanism like the Challis Arc (SW BC, Idaho and Montana) and the Absaroka Volcanics in NW Wyoming could’ve been generated by slabs detaching/detached from the Kula Plate.

  14. TechRax ( Taras Maksimuk ) is an incredible stupid and sometimes really fun youtube channel… He is really odd indeed.. with his crazy addiction of ”IPhone Terrorism destruction”. Here is a fun video of an old IPhone 5S that gets totaly demolished by a train. I wonder if there is any risk of de – railing.. but the phone is super – light and the train is super – heavy at great speed.. it just moves on.

    Thats for the VCbar
    Anyway I will never de – rail my phones

  15. Something interesting I have noticed at Kilauea, Pu’u O’o GPS is still showing contraction of the rift zone today, while the summit is showing extension, and also erupting at the same time.

    I think what this means is that before the eruption began there was a considerable overpressure in the east rift, when the eruption began it created a vent to release pressure.
    We have all been speculating on it being just a matter of time before a rift drain occurs and activity shifts to the east again, but it looks like the caldera is actually too empty and deep to allow that, the lava lake is over 200 meters deep or at about 710 m above sea level and there is still signals of magma being focused to the summit area. I doubt that magma is actually directly backflowing from the east rift to the summit but the hydraulic connection is favoring that direction.
    Pu’u O’o saw its last inflation begin in June of 2020, same time as the summit signals, I would guess that is reflective of the amount of overpressure we are seeing in the area, and that we wont see any sort of change in activity outside the summit until that is cancelled out – when the east rift is not under pressure. The lake seems generally to rise about a meter or two a day, if it takes another month for Pu’u O’o and the MERZ to deflate then the lake might continue to rise another 50 meters or so from where it is now, at least 30 is plausible which puts it at vent level.

    • During the Pu’u’o’o eruption, deflation-inflation events were able to deflate Pu’u’o’o very fast, and sometimes in a way identical to the summit, this shows that magma does flow back from the East Rift to the summit, even with very small changes in pressure. The magmatic pressure at the East Rift down to Pu’u’o’o and the Summit is roughly the same. If pressure falls at the Summit the flow reverses and the rift drains, which is what is happening right now.

      This has some interesting consequences, because it means that parts of the East Rift can be overpressure while the Summit is underpressure, since the load of rock is much less in the distal parts of the East Rift than at the Summit, it is easier for magmastatic pressure to exceed lithostatic. This is probably what concentrates activity in the East Rift at times when there is a well formed connector conduit.

      • That is true I didnt think of that correlation. Still it looks to me like at least for a while the summit is going to be refilling, and given the longevity of the vent now it is more likely to be in a single event rather than multiple discrete eruptions, that is this lake will rise until there is an outlet on the rift.
        On this note however, if there is an open fluid connection between Pu’u O’o and the summit, and presumably everything inbetween too, then it makes perfect sense this eruption happened where it did, because you have to go east of Pu’u O’o to reach the elevation of the current vent above sea level. This eruption happened at the lowest elevation on the open system.

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