The VC Bar

Welcome to the Volcano Café bar, a place for all things on or off topic and inane ramblings. There has been a need of late to find a place better suited to various theories, long comments and enthusiasm. This page will be less moderated than the main article pages and cleared out every month (this may change depending on use).

Have fun and don’t forget to tip the barman 😉

3,405 thoughts on “The VC Bar

  1. When there’s no running lava to watch there’s always water. RÚV has set up a livestream for the ongoing jökulhlaup. It shows the old bridge over Eldvatn. Note that the road over the bridge is not the ring road but Skaftártunguvegur. It’s located right next to the ring road, but the river makes a turn here and the ring road crosses it further downstream. The peak flow is expected on Wednesday or early Thursday.

    • Yeah, the Wuhan area was a known ‘hot-spot’ for zoonotics. Makes sense to put a surveillance lab there.

      Of course, if they’re not allowed to talk with local medics, who are not allowed to notice admission ‘spikes’ because it makes local politicians look bad, you have a disaster in the making…

      FWIW, that Wuhan doc who blew whistle on local out-break, was publicly shamed and forced to ‘recant’ by local authorities, cleared and given a medal by Peking –You could not make it up !! Well, now he’s safely dead, he’s been ‘lost’ from the official Covid history as gloriously depicted in new Wuhan museum…

  2. Nice video comparing the water level between when the camera was set up with the water level during the peak flow. Note that the reference level in the video is higher than normal, because when the camera was set up the flow rate remained elevated after the hlaup from the western cauldron.

    • Congrats! A verry intriguing article. I recognise your investigative way of working in your articles here at Volcanocafe as well. Like!

  3. I thought I would visit the bar for this little finding.

    While thinking about the inflation on the big island, I put in my search window (duck duck) “diagram of Mauna Loa plumbing. it brought up the “images” section and I found 2 (did not look at all of the pictures) references to Volcano cafe, one on the first line of images!


  4. You have allways clear answers for stupid questions.
    Fukushima earthquake – in our country seismologist say that ground go up for cca 1-2 cm when wave hit us.
    How long and flat is this wave?
    People dont feel it I know, but what is with large buildings.

    • It depends strongly on what kind of waves, but typically it will be over a width of 500 meters to a few kilometers.

  5. Back to Mars for a bit and a bit of a mystery what is going on with Ingenuity. JPL tweeted that the higher speed rotor test was a success and next would be a short hop to verify that in flight. Well I waited and waited but no imagery came down from the flight and, to be honest, I was starting to think it had crashed. Then suddenly two still images from the navcam appeared followed a few days later by some more new still images from the navcam which at least proved it was still in one piece and exactly where it was at end of Flight 13.

    Some of the images were taken by Ingenuity in the Mars afternoon when the helicopter should be asleep – maybe the different lighting and shadow tells them something.

    This image taken in the afternoon for example

    This image was acquired on Sep. 21, 2021 (Sol 209 of the Perseverance rover mission) at the local mean solar time of 14:55:40.

    And there are now 6 images of exactly the same spot taken at different times of the day (latest dated yesterday). I’m hopeful the mystery is solved with a NASA tweet soon and that it isn’t bad news.

    • Obviously the test worked but the helicopter did not move. Which perhaps was intended: a stationary test

      • Yes, they did the stationary test and tweeted it was a sucesss and next day (at earliest) was planned to hop. No imagery arrived and no updates came from JPL. The raw image server was ominously blank for recent imagery for many days. Then we got this strange sequence with an unusually large number of likes on the raw image server for such apparently boring, repetitive images.

        I find it strange.

    • I think they are playing with us now!

      Dennis @martiandennis

      Sol 214: Color image of the ground terrain where Ingenuity #MarsHelicopter is at. There sure are a lot of pebbles. Just a quick note, solar conjunction starts on October 2, when Mars goes behind the Sun from us and we will lose radio contact for ~12 days.

      Mars Helicopter Sol 214: Color Camera, imaged at 18:07:17.37543 (local mean solar time)

      65dBA noise @65dbNoise

      Interesting new images from #Ingenuity on Sol 214. Notice that they were captured at 18:07 PM LMST, so there are no hard shadows.
      RTE and Navcam images, slightly enhanced.

    • Mystery solved – there was an issue but the team is hopeful they can work around the issue. More at link below.

      2,800 RPM Spin a Success, but Flight 14 Delayed to Post Conjunction

      The test flight was scheduled to take place on Sept. 18, 2021 (Sol 206) and was supposed to be a brief hover flight at 16 feet (5 meters) altitude with a 2,700 rpm rotor speed. It turned out to be an uneventful flight, because Ingenuity decided to not take off. Here’s what happened: Ingenuity detected an anomaly in two of the small flight-control servo motors (or simply “servos”) during its automatic pre-flight checkout and did exactly what it was supposed to do: It canceled the flight.

      Ingenuity controls its position and orientation during flight by adjusting the pitch of each of the four rotor blades as they spin around the mast. Blade pitch is adjusted through a swashplate mechanism, which is actuated by servos. Each rotor has its own independently controlled swashplate, and each swashplate is actuated by three servos, so Ingenuity has six servos in total. The servo motors are much smaller than the motors that spin the rotors, but they do a tremendous amount of work and are critical to stable, controlled flight. Because of their criticality, Ingenuity performs an automated check on the servos before every flight. This self-test drives the six servos through a sequence of steps over their range of motion and verifies that they reach their commanded positions after each step. We affectionately refer to the Ingenuity servo self-test as the “servo wiggle.”

      The data from the anomalous pre-flight servo wiggle shows that two of the upper rotor swashplate servos – servos 1 and 2 – began to oscillate with an amplitude of approximately 1 degree about their commanded positions just after the second step of the sequence. Ingenuity’s software detected this oscillation and promptly canceled the self-test and flight.

      Our team is still looking into the anomaly. To gather more data, we had Ingenuity execute additional servo wiggle tests during the past week, with one wiggle test on Sept. 21, 2021 (Sol 209) and one on Sept. 23, 2021 (Sol 211). Both of the wiggle tests ran successfully, so the issue isn’t entirely repeatable.

  6. Meanwhile in Iceland, Grímsvötn and Öræfajökull playing dueling banjos.

    25.09.2021 06:54:23 64.476 -17.242 1.9 km 2.1 99.0 8.0 km N of Grímsfjall
    25.09.2021 05:32:13 64.016 -16.644 5.8 km 2.1 99.0 1.8 km E of Hvannadalshnjúkur

    • And it continues. Time to bring a canoe and wait for the jökulhlaup?

      25.09.2021 08:24:38 64.390 -17.376 6.6 km 1.6 99.0 5.2 km WSW of Grímsfjall
      25.09.2021 07:59:11 64.025 -16.692 2.0 km 1.0 99.0 1.1 km NNW of Hvannadalshnjúkur

  7. Biggest quake yet detected on Mars – 4.2

    NASA’s InSight Finds Three Big Marsquakes, Thanks to Solar-Panel Dusting

    On Sept. 18, NASA’s InSight lander celebrated its 1,000th Martian day, or sol, by measuring one of the biggest, longest-lasting marsquakes the mission has ever detected. The temblor is estimated to be about a magnitude 4.2 and shook for nearly an hour-and-a-half.

    This is the third major quake InSight has detected in a month: On Aug. 25, the mission’s seismometer detected two quakes of magnitudes 4.2 and 4.1. For comparison, a magnitude 4.2 quake has five times the energy of the mission’s previous record holder, a magnitude 3.7 quake detected in 2019.

    …Temblor Insights

    While the Sept. 18 quake is still being studied, scientists already know more about the Aug. 25 quakes: The magnitude 4.2 event occurred about 5,280 miles (8,500 kilometers) from InSight – the most distant temblor the lander has detected so far.

    Scientists are working to pinpoint the source and which direction the seismic waves traveled, but they know the shaking occurred too far to have originated where InSight has detected almost all of its previous large quakes: Cerberus Fossae, a region roughly 1,000 miles (1,609 kilometers) away where lava may have flowed within the last few million years. One especially intriguing possibility is Valles Marineris, the epically long canyon system that scars the Martian equator. The approximate center of that canyon system is 6,027 miles (9,700 kilometers) from InSight.

    To the surprise of scientists, the Aug. 25 quakes were two different types, as well. The magnitude 4.2 quake was dominated by slow, low-frequency vibrations, while fast, high-frequency vibrations characterized the magnitude 4.1 quake. The magnitude 4.1 quake was also much closer to the lander – only about 575 miles (925 kilometers) away.

    That’s good news for seismologists: Recording different quakes from a range of distances and with different kinds of seismic waves provides more information about a planet’s inner structure. This summer, the mission’s scientists used previous marsquake data to detail the depth and thickness of the planet’s crust and mantle, plus the size of its molten core.

  8. Even though La Palma isn’t quite a tourist eruption, still a VEI-2, I think (unless anyone can correct me). I don’t know what you guys here on VC have found (I am relatively new to the geology scene as well), have you seen an increase in interest this year? I am really heartened by the amount of people taking an interest in God’s creation – from Fagradalsfjall to La Palma. Yes they are small eruptions, but beautiful enough to spark attention. Fagradalsfjall sparked mine, and I have learned so much it is unreal. My knowledge has gone from the back on an envelope to two sides of A4. Thank You VC! Still much more to learn.

    Great presentations by GutnTog and Bushcraft Bear (who must team up for the next eruption), make it all the more worthwhile.

    I think there is enough of us on VC with varying skillsets to actually make some high-quality educational programming on current eruptions and seismic activity, perhaps geological stuff in general.

  9. Even though La Palma isn’t quite a tourist eruption, still a VEI-2, I think (unless anyone can correct me). I don’t know what you guys here on VC have found (I am relatively new to the geology scene as well), have you seen an increase in interest this year? I am really heartened by the amount of people taking an interest in God’s creation – from Fagradalsfjall to La Palma. Yes they are small eruptions, but beautiful enough to spark attention. Fagradalsfjall sparked mine, and I have learned so much it is unreal. My knowledge has gone from the back on an envelope to two sides of A4. Thank You VC! Still much more to learn.

    Great presentations by GutnTog and Bushcraft Bear (who must team up for the next eruption), make it all the more worthwhile.

    I think there is enough of us on VC with varying skillsets to actually make some high-quality educational programming on current eruptions and seismic activity, perhaps geological stuff in general.

    Just out of interest… who would be up for it?

  10. From Nature Geoscience
    “Volcanic eruptions shape Earth’s surface and provide a window into deep Earth processes. How the primary asthenospheric melts form, pond and ascend through the lithosphere is, however, still poorly understood. Since 10 May 2018, magmatic activity has occurred offshore eastern Mayotte (North Mozambique channel), associated with large surface displacements, very-low-frequency earthquakes and exceptionally deep earthquake swarms. Here we present geophysical and marine data from the MAYOBS1 cruise, which reveal that by May 2019, this activity formed an 820-m-tall, ~5 km³ volcanic edifice on the seafloor. This is the largest active submarine eruption ever documented. Seismic and deformation data indicate that deep (>55 km depth) magma reservoirs were rapidly drained through dykes that intruded the entire lithosphere and that pre-existing subvertical faults in the mantle were reactivated beneath an ancient caldera structure. We locate the new volcanic edifice at the tip of a 50-km-long ridge composed of many other recent edifices and lava flows. This volcanic ridge is an extensional feature inside a wide transtensional boundary that transfers strain between the East African and Madagascar rifts. We propose that the massive eruption originated from hot asthenosphere at the base of a thick, old, damaged lithosphere.”

    • That lava ascent directly from
      80 kilometers depth too .. so Mayotte is going to be a seriously hot lava

  11. IO haves Basaltic Lava flows Thats are 100 s of km long .. Albert When Juno Returns to IO Do you think its will be unregonicable from the 2000 s ?

    Some Ionian lava flows and lakes are even hotter than Earths

  12. Lei Kung Fluctus is the most extensive basalt flow field in IO it covers an area of 1.25*10^5 km² thats larger as Nicaragua, in terms of volume it may fall short of some terrestial flood basalt flows but one has to remeber that it is a recently emplaced flow. It have not yet been totaly snowed over by sulfur. Lei Kung Fluctus is probaly result of many decades lava long tube feed eruptions. Its a much larger lava flow than Amirani as example.
    This moon is amazing 🙂

  13. IO may erupt 600 km3 of lava basalt lava flows every year I think

    This is the Amirani basalt pahoehoe flow on IO
    ( the largest active lava flow on IO in year 1999 ) this lava flow is almost 600 kilometers long and is supplyed by lava tubes glowing skylights can be spotted from orbit. Lava breaks out on the surface very much like hawaiian flows. IO erupts high temperature basaltic magmas 1300 C, thats rich in sulfur gas, the sulfur escapes the lava lakes and snows out as sulfur snow. Tube feed flows like Amirani can last for many decades. The largest pahoehoe field on IO is called Lei Kung Fluctus as description above

    Another style of IO basalt flows are the Pillanian style, that involves huge lava fountains and fast flood basalts ( Pillian Patera 1997 erupted 56 km3 of basaltic lava in a week and filling a 70 km wide pit crater with a lava lake.

    • Hi Albert Do you think This lava flow is still active these days When Juno arrives?

      • There will be activity somewhere on Io. There always is. I’d love to know whether there is any recycling mechanism. Volcanoes put a lot of new crust out each year on Io. Is there any process that brings it back down? Perhaps as the top layer is added, the bottom of the crust melts and the whole thing sinks a bit? In that case there may be an interesting fault system hiding underneath the lava fields.

        • Yes the crust recycles itself in that way .. There is No tectonics

          Sillicate Lava flows and sulfur snow are piled on top eacother.. and compressed and buried until they melt again in the inner Ionian magma ocean.

        • Ionian lava flows have all very very low viscosity… as low as halemaumau and possible much lower if its komatites… some of the flows

      • And Albert Yes …

        Lava flows over IO s surface in a vaccum.. lava flows free over IO s surface, some flows are as Big as the UK or much larger

        IO haves huge lava lakes too like Loki Patera and Pele Patera

      • Albert another question

        Knowing How huge IO s basaltic lava lakes are .. some lava lakes are as Big as Sicily! on IO

        Are these Ionian lava lakes holes into IO s global magma ocean?

      • Loki Patera is a real open lava sea .. 280 km wide!
        Sea of molten basalt .. with a thin crust on the top that often founders

        Is this a hole into IO s magma ocean? Is the entire Moon liquid on the inside?

  14. This is a thermal photo of Pele Patera lava lake volcano on IO. This is IO s most active open lava lake with the most constant thermal emissions. Ionian lava lakes are Absoutley huge compared to earths counterparts. Halemaumau overlook was 280 m wide, but Pele Patera lava lake on IO coud be 60 kilometers long and 25 kilometers wide. The bright spots are lava fountains where sulfur gases escaped and the black crust breaks up. 1280 C to 1500 C been estimated for Pele lava fountains on IO. Galileo probe spotted many fountains and crust founderings in Pele lava lake. This lava lake must be a spectacular sight, sitting in a massive ”canyon” with fountains and waves roiling over the black crust.

    There is a constant tephra plume from Pele too suggesting really tall lava fountains. Smaller emissions are spattering. Splashing are common among the pits walls of this lava lake

    • A 60 km long lava lake must be a sight to behold… Earth terestrial premanent lava lakes never reaches that size.

      Pele Patera is IO s most constant strong thermal emission, much more intense than Loki Patera .. suggesting Pele Patera is a much more active lava lake thats more vigorously over turning

      Chad perhaps = What woud a lava lake the size of Sao Miguel look like?

      Ionian lakes are off the chart compared to Earth terestrial lava lakes. The largest Ionian lava lake is almost 300 kilometers wide .. and is perhaps a window into IO s inner magma ocean

      Perhaps the Moon will melt competely in the future .. becomming an entirely liquid lava lake planet If tidal forcing makes it even closer to Jupiter in eliptical orbit ?

      Coud you tidaly heat a planet to competely molten state? ( quite hell Idea? )

    • Juno Spacecraft will have a look in 2024 on IO

      IO s lavas are also very hot .. I think almost 1650 C to 1700 C been measured in local intense lava fountains .. These lava are white hot and as liquid as liquid steel. Woud be like a flood of liquid steel flowing over the surface. Pillan Patera erupted 56 km3 of Komatite in a few days If I remeber right, that woud be a sight on the ground.

      The 70 km wide and 3 km deep Pillan Patera was also filled by lava cascading over the walls as 3 km high lava falls, an Impressive sight for soure for any astronaut on the surface.

      Everything is changing on IO basaltic flows comes and goes, and gets snowed over by sulfur and gets covered by new komatite and basalt flows.

      IO haves Only very flat shield volcanoes and calderas, the crust maybe too hot and weak to support tall edifices

      Probaly Komatites thats erupting
      Many Ionian lava flows are look fluid and pahoehoe like

      IO is a real hellmoon, sulfur snow from magma degassing, and even snow of metal oxides, Infact IO was the inspiration for Mustafar in Star Wars

    • Albert My addiction for IO haves No limit

      I hopes there will be an IO Global Surveyor one day .. If we can pack it in radiation proof insulating materials.

      I hopes Juno can provide some fun from IO at least, I wants Juno to be put in orbit around IO, but that woud take alot of fuel from the tank.
      How radioation proof is Juno?

      I wants To see these volcanoes all the time

      I hopes Nasa coud work on souch a project one day, that woud be fun, but I know that costs and budget are priority and they haves other more boring projects as priority now

    • Some Ionian Ultramafic Lavas woud be very much like liquid iron erupting
      That forms a very difftent volcanic landforms than Earths

      Perhaps the vents resembles liquid slag dumps.. with thin thin flows in thin sheet layers

      But There are clearly thicker basaltic flows too on IO and most of IO s lava flows haves surface morphological features of fluid Hawaiian lavas

      As Albert says There is always stuff going on .: on IO

    • Hi Albert .. knowing the size of IO s lava flows and open lava lakes

      Do IO have some VEI 8 magma chambers? Sulfur is the primary eruptive volatile in IO s Basaltic and Komatites magmas.

      When Juno arrives in IO in 2024 it will be alot of fun

  15. I have had fantastic dreams about IO

    Being in an astronaut tourist group .. on IO s dark side. Watching the bigger than niagara sized lava rivers fiery falls and glowing ribbons flowing over a pitch dark landscape.
    Space – suit clad figures look at it .. bathed in the hot glow of the lava.

    Huge standing lava waves and lava currents .. yet all silent in the vaccum, its flowing very fast for soure

    Above is the enormous jupiter ( 40 times bigger than the Moon is in our sky ) lit Half
    by the sun .. with its glowing crimson plasma tourus and thunderstorms flashes on Jupiters nightside

    IO s sky too is alive by yellow sulfur sodium Northen lights that coils itself like an uneasy snake over the enraged lava landscape

    But the astronauts are focused on the raging lava rivers

    The spacesuits have their own northen ligths that glow around the persons. The future equipment that shields against Jupiters Radiation

    Thats What lava hike on IO is like and it exist in our solar system

    What a sight What a sight!

  16. Mars solar conjunction command moratorium coming to an end and I see Maven is the first to be commanded back to High Gain Antenna/High bitrate. The landers were continuing to uplink basic health data and the orbiters continued to relay that to Earth with restricted bandwidth so hopefully no surprises and everything gets back up to speed quickly over the next few days as individual mission moratoriums expire.

    Deep Space Network
    DSS 25 receiving data from MAVEN at 285.7kb/s.

    During the moratorium Maven was downlinking at 11 bits per second so that’s quite an improvement 🙂

  17. Full comms now also re-established with MRO

    Deep Space Network
    DSS 34 receiving data from Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter at 0.7Mb/s.

  18. Fun Jupiter question that Albert and Chad may answer .. How to turn Jupiter into water

    We know that Jupiter is mostly made of only hydrogen.

    What will happen If We Add a whole
    Jupiter mass again of pure oxygen to the poor Jupiter? Just add more than 320 Earth masses of oxygen atoms to Jupiter!

    A ligthning storm woud then combust the whole planet? turning it into a water giant?

    If the whole Jupiter bulk of hydrogen burned in that way .. woud it be possible?

    Perhaps Jupiter woud become a H2O giant then .. perhaps similar to a huge version of Neptune

    • As soon as there islightning bolt or meteor hit, Jupiter will start shining brightly as the oxygen combines with methane and hydrogen 🙂

      Everything woud turn to water then ..
      Tranforming Jupiter into an enormous hot ocean of super – ionic compressed liquid states of Ice
      Perhaps it woud become an Ice Giant just bigger .. ?

    • Turning Jupiter to a water giant woud require another Jupiter mass of oxygen to be dropped into a Jupiter itself

      The oxygen gas giant woud be strange world in its own right.. having huge deep oceans of liquid metallic oxygen

      You Only need to collide these two to kick the process starting .. 🙂

    • If the entire bulk of Jupiters hydrogen was combusted to water .. you haves No hydrogen envelope at all

      That woud transform Jupiter into a giant oceanic planet perhaps like an overgrown kamino … with surface ocean and rest is superhot ionic ices deep below ..

      It woud be an object that I doubt exist in a real universe

      But oceanic terestrial exoplanets exist

  19. I am having an extremely time understanding where we are with these vaccine. No one will shut up about how effective they are but it’s been barely a year since the initial vaccine rollout and we’re already talking about doing another booster rollout. Excuse me? When I got my smallpox shot, I didn’t need to get a booster after a year, same with all the other vaccines. Speaking of which, what kind of vaccine doesn’t stop me from getting the disease, doesn’t stop me from dying, and doesn’t keep me from spreading the disease? They’re are freaking covid outbreaks in countries with the highest vaccination rates! That’s never happened with the other effective vaccines so what makes these so amazing?

      • Then why is no one treating it like a flu shot? The flu shot didn’t eradicate the flu, I don’t think this shot isn’t going to eradicate Covid-19. Plus if the scientists are real lucky with the flu shot it’d stop me from getting the flu. I think people need to calm down about Covid 19, it’s bad but not unprecedented, we’ve had similar pandemics before and this one will end just like all the others. The vaccine may help, especially those who are at the most risk but they probably won’t end the pandemic and we shouldn’t pretend it’s a guarantee they will.

        • Some of what you say is correct but covid is not the flu. Everyone we know who has had it says so. It is considerably worse. Vaccines are worth it. We have not had such an epidemic since a century.

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