The VC Bar

Welcome to the Volcano Café bar, a place for all things on or off topic and inane ramblings. There has been a need of late to find a place better suited to various theories, long comments and enthusiasm. This page will be less moderated than the main article pages and cleared out every month (this may change depending on use).

Have fun and don’t forget to tip the barman 😉

2,572 thoughts on “The VC Bar

  1. One day I will visit the surface of the sun and be clad in a tantalum carbide suit thats cooled with liquid hydrogen.. also the welders mask on. And a Hydrogen cooled tantalum carbide surfboard too!. Solar tsunami waves are awsome stuff. 10 kilometers High walls waves of hot plasma a must to do sight!.. I wants so badely to surf one!

    Nerdvana achived

    • Yes. Immediate. The only way to stay cool is to bury yourself inside a kilometer wide comet. It will evaporate, but survive just long enough to exit the solar corona. They are called kamikaze comets. The name gives an idea what to expect ..

      • A Comet that gets into the photosphere woud be accelerated to 600 kilometers a second! becomming a giant meteor and burning up in an X – Ray burst.
        The suns surface photosphere woud shake like a bell.
        gone in a white flash

    • I will not be able to surf
      The photosphere is less than 1/100 th of earths surface air density. But its dense enough to be opaque and have Some kind of structure.

      Instead it woud be a death fall into a fiery pit of oblivion of a stars depths.
      You cannot walk on the sun ☀️
      Instead I woud fall inside it

    • My surfboard needs to have fast supersonic engines ( mach 6 ) to allow me to float on that thin photosphere plasma and generate some kind of lift
      To prevent me to be pulled further inside the sun.

      Surfing on top of the Photosphere

    • But once I had gotten to the suns surface.. its very difficult to leave! you needs 600 kilometers per second to leave and escape its surface.
      Far beyond what any rocket can do from start.

      And the liquid hydrogen cooling wont last forever
      But my suits woud be ruined its so hot that cooling is perhaps not enough

      ( But Space Shuttle engines runns at 3300 C and cooled by liquid hydrogen )

      Terrible terrible idea this was

        THE SUN IS SWALLOWING A COMET TODAY: A comet is plunging toward the sun–and it’s not going well for the comet. New images from the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) show the supersonic snowball evaporating furiously as it approaches the sun on August 27th:
        Discovered just yesterday, the comet is a Kreutz sungrazer–a fragment from the breakup of a giant comet many centuries ago. SOHO has discovered thousands of Kreutz sungrazers; tiny ones divebomb the sun almost every day. This fragment is bigger and brighter than usual, however.

        “The comet made its closest approach to the sun today, Aug. 27th, at 15:58 UT,” says Karl Battams of the Naval Research Lab in Washington DC. “It was only half a solar radius above the surface of the sun.”

        Looking at close-up images from SOHO’s C2 coronagraph, Battams notes that the comet’s tail is not typical. “It’s more of a boulder-strewn debris trail,” he says. “The comet is being entirely deconstructed by solar radiation in our solar system’s most hostile environment!”

    • Yes, four weeks ago. Hanna hit Texas and Douglas hit Hawaii a day later (without landfall, though)

      • Thanks Albert. On the continental USA? Not finding any simultaneous arrivals, although records are probably over too short a timespan.

        • IIRC, there was a much-derided prediction that, due to raised Atlantic water temperature, this storm season could be long and bad. Has begun early, keeps giving and giving…

          With shortened interval between storms, I reckon one could be delayed crossing Gulf while next meets Florida, giving your dreaded twofer…

        • I am not sure that two hurricanes in the Gulf is a stable situation. Hurricanes need space to grow. Neither is it clear yet that both will become hurricanes. But yes, I think that two tropical storms in the Gulf at the same time is rare enough.

          • Yes. If they ‘meet’ they may lower their intensity. The NHC forecast discussion considers this. Not sure the models can be too clear if this happens. Lots of divergent predictions too mull over for forecasters. Fingers crossed for the coastal communities.

          • The idea even has a name and had been studied and simulated.

            Fujiwhara effect

            This is a post Laura landfall comment. I spent most of yesterday running growth comparisons with past hurricanes and conversing with the other dragons about it.

            Lake Charles got off lucky. It seems the monstrous storm surge impacted the coast just to the east of the ship channel that leads into the city. Stuff got trashed there, but the flooding component was not as bad as it could have been. Watching the Weather Channels Stephanie Abrams scurry in from being pelted by flying debris was a bit comical. It is just a matter of time before one of those “in the field” reporters has a less than optimal outcome while trying to get an exciting landfall story. I was thinking that a full on Cat-4 might be the one. While Laura did have growth intervals that rivaled Camille and Katrina intensification periods… it only did that for a couple of instances. Camille had a 3.3 mb/hr drop in central pressure for about 40 hours straight if I remember the data set correctly. An old term from NHC is that “rapid intensification” is 42 mb in 24 hours. That’s about 1.75 mb/hr. If you want to compare that to winter “Bomb Cyclone” events.. those are 24 mb/24 hours or 1 mb/hr.

            Why am I fiddling aroud with Hurricane data? Well, I live along the gulf coast. I’ve ridden these things out on shore and I’ve ridden them out at sea. If it’s hurricane season. I’m watching. (Hurricane Ivan killed my truck)

            BTW.. the best comment I read yesterday was when Albert worked out the amount of atmosphere that had to be evacuated from the core to cause the amount of pressure drop that was occurring. That’s “next level” analysis if I’ve ever seen it! 😀

            Red is Camille, Purple is Laura. Camille data is sparse, so I set the zero hour spot for both when they were near the same central pressure and ran out the history on an hourly basis. Camille data is from NHC’s HURDAT2 database, Laura is from NHC updates as it transpired. Why Camille? its the first Eyewall I ever saw on radar. (WLBT Channel 3 in Jackson Mississippi’s new radar at the time. I was 8yo and can still remember it as the western Eyewall passed through Rankin County MS.)


    Guys you should buy Flight Simulator 2020! The whole planet in 3D in extreme detail.

    And amazing live 3D volumetric clouds and weather thats streamed from data servers.

    Exploring Hurricane Genevieve in Microsoft Flight Simulator 2020
    You can fly into live hurricanes and the clouds are rendered from live satelite data… No storm looks the same

      • You should buy this game: its really incredibe: far exceeds the realism in Google Earth by a 100 times.
        The whole world is fly – able in extreme detail and accuracy.
        But the atmosphere is almost the most stunning: the live 3D weather, volumetric clouds and realistic sunlight and ray scattering.

        But you needs a pretty powerful computer to runn it on ultra settings: a huge graphics card and a processor with at least 7 cores I think.

        But its incredible what Microsoft have managed to create for the simmers.

        Iceland is a must explore in this game!
        Yesterday I was flying over Thingvellir and was captured by the beauty. But the conifer forests that autogen thinks are there… must be removed for Iceland scenery

  3. This is amazing! its incredible how far Microsofts Flight Simulator have come in almost 40 years.

    A good way to explore volcanoes!
    Today in 2020 s version the entire Earth is digitaly recreated with every airport and every city and volcano, mountain and landform in 3D. As well as ultrarealistic 3D live volumetric cloud weather and atmosphere.
    Im breathless what they managed to launch on the game market. The weather is almost the most awsome on ultra settings. But you needs a rather powerful gaming computer to make it look good.

    But its a huge step from FSX 2006
    That also looks acceptable on highest settings. But remeber in 1990 s how primitive the graphics where and how bad the enviroments looked like.
    1980 s and early 1990 s versions of flight simulator are too primitive to even fly and play with.

    But FS2020 needs to remove the forests in Iceland

  4. Albert if you haves a powerful computer: you should test FS2020
    Im flying over Iceland on ultra settings and Im completely lost now: stunning beauty and realism here.
    Most beautyful is afternoon or cloudy days: the light engine is stunning.
    The landscapes on Earth are created by something called ” 3D photogrammetry” and thats lit by the light game engine in the flight simulator. But all the tall conifer forests that Autogen places in Iceland, must be fixed by future updates. Iceland looks like sweden when Im flying here

    • Check the date/time on program: If 2220, it may be a fair extrapolation.

      Didn’t the first settlers, circa Medieval Warm Period, find lots of trees ??

    • That will not be accidental. The landscape was inserted by machine learning, and it would have learned from similar areas elsewhere in the world, esp. Chile and Scandinavia.

      • The 3D volumetric clouds thats also live satelite weather are absolutley rad in this game!
        unbelivable the clouds are… so beautyful and realistic
        Souch CGI clouds are extremely complex and difficult to render.
        Im flying into the Gulf of mexico low pressures now .. totaly insane
        But you needs a powerful computer… even my monster gets hot and stressed.
        FS2020 trys to do alot of rendering on servers, so computers dont explode.
        FS2020 is mindblowing

        I remeber how demanding FSX ( version before 2020 ) was when it came out in 2006
        Almost no computer coud run FSX back then. Even today FSX is very very demanding at high settings.

        Flight Simulators are perhaps the most demanding of all games.
        I hopes they have added 2014 s Holohuraun terrain in 2020
        Time to fly there

      • Yes the trees are autogen and generated as AI haves climate and enviroment learning for diffrent parts of the wast world that exist in FS2020 ( the largest game world ever ).
        Microsoft have replicated the entire planet for us to fly in.

        But as my brother Jesper says: the live volumetric clouds and living atmosphere and realistic 3D raylenght scattering by sunlight are so incredible!
        Both me and him are breathless now.

        New Zeelands volcanoes and landscapes are something that we are going to fly soon.
        South Alps is a must to see: the game is 100 times far better than Google Earth, even if bing maps data thats base for the game,is little behind Google earth.
        LoL but I hopes hours on this game does not kill our computer.
        A laptop woud simply detonate at ultra settings…

      • The wast world in the game uses Bing Maps data.
        Go to bing maps.. and try to find Holhuraun.
        If the lava field is not in Bing Maps yet… it woud be either in FS2020

      • I dont want to flood VC with this game.. but it really is incredible, absolutley stunning
        I can hardly belive my eyes. If you use the smaller jets with powerful engines for their small size.. its possible to go up at 50 000 – 53 000 feet ( 15240 m )
        The skies are realistic as heck: and the colour of the sky, also behaves realistic.
        The higher you go, the thinner the air and the less air pressure.
        At 50 000 feet you get this very dark blue indigo sky at noon.
        When concorde gets avaible it will be possible to go up to 60 000 feet and nearly picth black dayskies.. high above almost all weather expect the most angry tropical cumulonimbus and volcanic eruption columns

        • I’d keep the altitude down a bit. At 15 km you (the pilot) have to wear air breathing apparatus (I know from experience). If something happens, you lose conscience too fast to safe the plane.

      • Im impressed too by the ligths and scale of the cgi world and atmospheric simulation.
        And and these live 3D clouds supporting all cloud types.. and no cloud looks the same either. Game industry gives 10/10 stars for MFS2020: a rating thats very hard for any game to reach. Incredible! it is..

      • Flight Simulator 2020 is probaly the biggest game world EVER.. thats ever been created.

        GTA 5, Red Dead Redemtion are tiny tiny tiny tiny tiny tiny compared to the incredibley wast world that MFS2020 offers.
        And 70% of MFS2020 is ocean.

        GTA 5 Los Santos is itself a kind of Island that players are stuck in. You can fly outside the Island in GTA 5 but you never ever get anywhere..

        This is the VC – Bar and off topic is probaly allowed

      • You haves to go up to 19 kilometers for a spacesuit to be required ( armstrong limit ) there water can only exist as ice or vapour.

        Concorde flyed at
        20 kilometers elevation.
        Almost pitch black skies there at noon!: but still well inside the atmosphere. Felix Baumgartner jumped from helium balloon at twice that height

      • Incredible game MFS2020 is.I will fly over all GVP volcanoes soon.
        Flyed over Mauna Loa at ultra settings yesterday 35 000 feet and Live Weather.
        It was an incredible sight… seeing the dark black and rusty brown behemoth rise over the 3D trade wind clouds!. The maps and textures are detailed enough to allow 100 meter soar over the caldera floor, without loosing the fantastic illusion.
        Its just as I remeber seeing Mauna Loa for the first time in 2014.

        The beautyful blue ocean, and millions of small popcorn cumulus below me, and Mauna Loas dark shape with ribbons of lava flows. The game even simulates noon scattering that distant objects like islands and mountains fade into blue haze at distance

        • For really, really real, your engine(s) should trip out while flying through the vog & ash cloud…

          Remember that airliner, whose pilot & co barely managed to re-start one engine after ~20,000 foot descent ? Bought enough time to re-start another and get clear…

          Landed okay, but crew sorta kissed the hard-standing with gratitude for their escape…

  5. Big Hurricane south of Cuba now
    Time to use FS2020 and do a hurricane insecption: turn on live weather

  6. Carl’s Birthday? Thanks for the reminder. Happy Birthday! And may your favourite volcano give you a harmless ashy pop to celebrate!

    • I’m reading the articles from Bardy’s 2014-2015 eruption. There were multiple replies on 24 August 2014 wishing Carl a happy birthday. So that’s where I got that info.

    • Yea thats incredible… Im having a try too exploring the storm with small jet.
      Some of these storm tops are incredible goes up 50 000 feet even in the game.

      • Let’s try some math. The core pressure is dropping by 3 mb per hour. That correspond to about 25 meters of air column at ground level. Let’s assume this is over a core diameter of 10 miles. The air removal then amounts to 4 km3 per hour! If this happens over 20 hours, you lose 80 km3 of air into thin air. That makes Laura a high VEI-6 … already.

        • “Storm surge: This effect is estimated at a 10 mm (0.39 in) increase in sea level for every millibar (hPa) drop in atmospheric pressure.”

          There’s also wind-blown waves’ ‘rode’, coriolis-related curving of waves around ‘barrier’ islands and, like a slo-mo tsunami, a storm’s off-shore ‘hump’ up-rising when it reaches coastal shallows…

          Also, if you’re really unlucky, storm coincides with both a river-flood and a lunar ‘spring’ or ‘king’ tide…

          • I am not sure the US can have ‘king tides’. It is an australian term for tides that exceed the usual spring tide. The US got rid of the king, so should not be allowed to use this term. And certainly not use it for an ordinary spring tide…

          • NOAA etc loosely use this term for ‘Super Springs’ or ‘Equinoctials’, the low Carolinas are seasonally beset by them, even the Monterey Bay Oceanography folk warn of them.

            But I take your point, per the infamous French Revolutionaries who felt obliged to spit after mentioning royalty of any ilk…

        • Reply to comment about ‘King tides.’

          Here in the San Francisco bay area the media calls the tides on the bay that are higher than average ‘King tides.’ Actually they are preceded by really low tides. These are predictable as it is a great time to go tidepooling. Just watch out for sneaker waves.
          I think the tide heights have something to do with sun and moon alignment. The moon being on a tilted axis to the earth. Pretty much everything around the bay is tidal. One is never more than 7 miles from navigable water.
          Could be that we borrowed the term ‘King tides.’ along with the Blue Gums (Eucalyptus.) that makes fires here so fun. Torch trees, which when compiled with native manzanita (kerosene bushes.) makes for some rather fiery landscaping.

          • “…something to do with sun and moon alignment.”
            You nailed it.


            When *mostly* aligned, which is twice a lunar month, ‘Spring’. When *mostly* at right angles, ‘Neap’. Locally, may be delayed a day or so due to coastal shape eg EU North Sea.

            When *closely* aligned, at the equinoxes, you get ‘Equinoctial’ Spring, or ‘King’ tides with enhanced range. Add a ‘Blocking High’ for a super-low, beach-comber’s delight of a low tide, or a storm’s ‘Low Pressure’ plus wind-driven waves for a ‘pump out your crawl-space’ super-high high tide…

            Much more detail, including coastal shape & shelf effect, coriolis etc and the Metonic cycle, where sun, earth and moon positions and tides repeat almost exactly every 18.63 (~19) years. Hence ancient predictability of ‘Blood Moon’ lunar –NOT Solar– eclipses.

            IIRC, not mentioned in Wiki, there’s also a ‘Wild Card’ as Earth & Moon orbits’ shapes vary slightly on millennial scales. So, there were times in eg Middle Ages when tidal ranges were enhanced compared to now, and times when they were reduced. With obvious effects on currents, shoals, over-turns, whirlpools, bar-crossing, silting & coastal erosion etc etc. IIRC, compounded by 2nd-order glacial isostasis, aka the ‘moat effect’, a bunch of near-legendary Euro ‘Lost Lands’ went under thus. IIRC, we’re in a ‘mostly harmless’ phase…

            Disclosure: I’m a bit sensitive about tidal ranges and sea level rises. Though I’m situate upon a robust sandstone ridge with the reassuring Medieval dry-foot suffix ‘On The Hill’, there’s a *lot* of vulnerable coast near-by. Should one lonnng dune-line fail, much, much reclaimed land would revert to salt-marsh and fen-land as far as a railway embankment’s stop-line. Beyond that, several miles to a major road, which would be a logical logistical site for a levee. Beyond that, very little for a dozen-plus miles except a few, high-perched Medieval sites…

    • Anyone: how are these 3D live volumetric clouds ☁️ made from satelite space data?
      In 4 K and ultra settings these clouds looks amazing,
      its incredible how souch things can be made in a computer.
      The light is phenomenaly realistic too. It looks so good, compared to earlier Flight Simulators. An enormous ammounts of advance in technology since 2006.

      • Yes it really is AWSOME in FS2020
        Incredible the graphics are on ultra settings. Im blown away totaly here too.
        Maybe Albert knows a thing or two about these rendering of clouds and atmosphere in 3D.

        But even FSX ( 2006 ) looks incredible at max settings, and it is still extremely demanding on MAX settings today: even my monster cannot run FSX smoothly on MAX settings.
        FSX also haves 3D volumetric clouds, but MFS2020 beats it instantly.

      • I remeber when FSX came out = almost no home computer coud run it at even ”high” settings. Even today 14 years later, no computer can run it smoothly on MAX settings. FSX is still a huge hardware mayhem

  7. A few days ago, during being bored, I heard the very first time about so called “Heinrich Events”. Now I’m wondering if you fly over the timescales in the diagrams see any connections to the volcanic history of Iceland?

    “A Heinrich event is a natural phenomenon in which large groups of icebergs break off from glaciers and traverse the North Atlantic. First described by marine geologist Hartmut Heinrich (Heinrich, H., 1988), they occurred during five of the last seven glacial periods over the past 640,000 years (Hodell, et al., 2008).

  8. The Forecast discussions from NHC on Laura seem unusually frank. I fear the worst for the communities affected the last thing anyone needs right now. UK met office model shows it crossing back into North Atlantic and ramping up again into a storm. I assume it will keep its name?

  9. Dear Readers

    Please have a look to the annual mean value 12 m beneath surface:

    I was looking for other underground thermometers but sadly I could not find any reliable source. So I switched to mud volcanoes (not the one which you may have in Iceland) the one which emit mostly methane (CH4). I would like to use them as natural “earth fever thermometers” (yes I know that in literature they are driven by tectonic or seismic events/forces) but again I could not find any lists or diagrams with time and/or volume and/or volume changes and/or gas mixtures.

    So I would appreciate if you would post a link and/or if you would have a explanation for a climate change in minus 12 m soil during the last 120 years.

    Your piece 💩

    • interesting that the mean monthly temp over the year is coldest in august when you get down to 12m – presumably as it takes 6 months of so for the heat/cold to reach that far down.

      it seems to be going upward as mean since 1890

      • Yes, at 6 meters you can see that the minimum temperature is in April/May: it takes around 3-4 months for the cold to penetrate this far. At 12 meters the minimum is in August, so another 3-4 months. The cold/warmth penetrate at about 0.6 meter per month. Of course the amplitude of the annual variation goes down a lot with depth.

        It is interesting how well the global warming since 1980 shows up. The continents are currently warming faster than the oceans, and you can see here that the local warming of 0.5C/decade is well above the global warming. You need many more such stations to get good statistics.

        You do see the same effect of delayed deep heating in the oceans where water at 700 meters depth is now beginning to respond to the surface warming.

        • IIRC, the penetration in permafrost is tied to drainage patterns. If topography permits run-off, there’s a risk of local gulleying and ravines. But, if pools / ponds / bogs form, this may rapidly multiply the depth of ‘active zone’…

      • I would suggest that we need two heat sources to explain this behavior of air- vs. soil-temperatures over the 120 years of data.

        I remember to the radio message from the Apollo 13 crew:

        “Houston we have a problem”

    • There is a second reliable earth fewer thermometer:

      The rock, which did not unfreeze since the last glacial period in the middle of warm stones…until now in Poland 2020!

      “What is The Suwalki Anomaly?”

      And still the cold is not moving, only the heat is coming back or going somewhere else, not only from the atmosphere to the crust…



      • The ‘watchers’ page *does* mention previous eruption was ~2014, but I must have missed the temperature report.

        Tangential: IIRC, there’s a *moving* mud-pot at South end of Salton Sea which is exasperating utilities. It has swallowed or ducked under pilings & coffer-dams.The rail-line has had to be diverted, and anything trenched or poled near-by re-aligned. Oddly, mud is *cold*, seems non-geothermal. Also, not oil/gas isotope mix, so not a nascent ‘La Brea’…

        FWIW, page goes via an intractable cookie-set page. Chrome will not auto-translate, and attempts to copy buttons’ text to Google Translate risks activating them…

        { Last time I had to manually translate much German was retro-engineering arcane chem synthesis recipes writ in ‘Fraktur’, Typically, one (1) short sentence of intro. One (1) short sentence of summary. Between those, one (1) page-and-a half sentence with recipe, all verbs neatly stacked at the end. We joked that such took longer to disentangle and translate than to do the synthesis. Beyond instilling a persistent loathing for RPN languages, it later equipped me for combing out spaghetti BASIC coding…}

    • Since a couple of years we have in Switzerland some health problems with natural Radon emissions from the earthcrust…

      Did you ever read something about Radon emissions connected to hydrothermal or volcanic activities?

      Was it ever measured during a event?

      Is it a constant flow out of the earth or do Radon emissions have any pattern over time? Historic time? Geology time?



    Something for astrophyscist Albert
    Getting to space in Flight Simulator 2020. You can drop the aircraft at
    260 000 feet elevation and it stalls out in the near vaccum. With 747 – 800 I was only able to go up 46 000 feet before getting serious problems

    • I coud go up to almost 50 000
      But getting serious problems even at Max speed
      The air is to thin to support a 747 there.. and you haves to be supersonic to generate lift.

      PS the video above is over Iceland VC s most loved volcanic arera.


    Some information on Nishinoshima, it was erupting at a rate of 4.6 million m3/day at the peak of the recent high activity, and erupted more mafic lava than before, high magnesium content and SiO2 of <55% as opposed to 60% before June, which explains the high temperature of the magma recently. Looks like it isnt going to stop soon with new deep magma feeding it now. It does though look like maybe the eruption is not so enormous in volume, 4.6 million m3/day for 2 months is about 0.3 km3 over that time, as opposed to over 2 km3. Still a large eruption but not like fissure 8 or holuhraun.

    Also a big mud volcano up close.

    • With 55% sillica its now a basaltic andesite.
      But at 60% its an andesite I think

      “Nishinoshima maybe one of the worlds ”hottest andesites”, temperature is important too.
      It erupts ar at viscosity Thats similar to Heklas andesite flows.
      Nishinoshima forms rivers but always rough Aa lava. Viscosity is still higher than all basalts.
      Probaly is 1060 C for Nishinoshima. It never forms any smooth surfaces in closeup.
      Tarso Tousside stratovolcano africa, seems to have Identical viscosity to Nishinoshima,
      same kind of Aa lava tounge shapes. The ground in Nishinoshima is a terrible nightmare of loose lava rubble called Aa clinker” terrfying when you falls and stumbles on that type of terrain” –
      Jesper S as reference.

      Nishinoshimas andesites are simply much hotter than most normal andesites at subduction zones.

      • Could this mean Nis’ subducting plate has descended very steeply and rapidly, so hot magma is coming up from great depth ??

        But, as Wiki etc warn of TT, “The origin of volcanism in Tibesti is unclear; both a hotspot-related mechanism and tectonic effects of the collision between the African Plate and the Eurasian Plate have been proposed.[10]”

        I suppose there could be some lost Tethys sea-bed under TT. If area’s politics ever calms, there will be convoys of volcanologists queuing to investigate and instrument…

  12. On the main post I made a comment on the 1861 eruption of Dubbi in Eritrea, the biggest historical eruption in Africa. On reading about it more it is really a very impressive eruption, one of the biggest effusive eruptions in direct observation and also a VEI 5 at the same time. The eruption began as a basaltic eruption that alone was bigger than holuhraun (1.7 km3) and at the same time a silicic plinian eruption happened from the summit that erupted an unknown but very significant volume, probably similar to the lava, with several lateral blasts considered in the mode to explain the relatively high casualty count. After this an entire new flow erupted afterwards that was at least as large as the first flow, about 2 km3, for between 3.5 and 5 km3 total in collectively a few months + the explosive tephra.
    Effectively a single volcano erupted a holuhraun sized flow twice with a VEI 5 in between…

    There is also more than a passing resemblence to Hekla, in both appearence and its simultaneous bimodal volcanism.

  13. also might be worth noting that the widget connecting to facebook login seems to lock up (when it didn’t used to) – so perhaps there is something needing updating (perhaps a facebook api tweak has broken the widget?)


    What Earth will look like in year 50 000
    The entire planet will become a cyberpunk nightmare, with a sligthly Orwellian undetone. The entire planets surface will become kilometer deep Las Vegas like neon mayhem with flying cars and dirty streets. With a wast criminal underworld. Buildings sectors and housing kilometers wide and deep.
    Perhaps our entire planets crust will be hidden deep under man made structures. Coruscant is a good example. Year 50 000 Earth will probaly lack any regional cultures. Everyone is constantly logged in, and everyone knows what everyone does. Big brother society and you are watched all the time. The cities of Asia is already very cyberpunk like. Technology will consume us all. If the future is dead, then we must summon it and learn how to see it properly again. Still I do NOT want to live in souch a world 😂

    • Yeeea and the only nature left on the entire planet will be NY central park a monument to the ”times when earth had natural ground”
      Your ideas are dystopian as heck!

    • And central park buried so deep that it must have artifical sunlight for the trees to grow : )
      Earth will have a huge kind of CO2 scrubber systems to regulate the climate.
      Otherwise earth will turn into Venus very very quickly under souch conditons.
      Indeed my future views are creepy as heck

    • From orbit at nightside… the future earth will glitter and glow like a diamond neon ball
      with urban circles and glow from electricity and lights. very colourful and strange.

      The dayside will be grey with circles and shapes, thats obiously man made urban cityscape
      Perhaps the oceans will be hidden under floating cities, perhaps the oceans will be drained for fusion reactors and drinking water. Perhaps the oceans will be stored somewhere by humans.
      But the dayside will be grey and death star like, but with an atmopshere.

    • ” your new tube apartment is at sector 23 and block 199948A4 and level 3480″
      Yuck lets hope humans never turns to that future..

    • This sounds like a total dystopian technological terror nightmare: your own version of humanitys future. Im grateful
      I haves acess to nature outside and sunlight as well as fresh air.

      Your future Earth will be full of crime and health problems and cause a fauna mass extinction.
      ( If the wild animals are not stored in biosphere domes )
      This guy haves a wild mind.

  15. Links without any explanation are often dungeoned as possible spam. That happened in this case. -admin


    Looks like Kilauea had a recharge event today, lots of tiny quakes at about the depth of the top of the main magma chamber, 1-2 km deep. They also immediately trace out the upper rift east rift, maybe all that new magma in 2018 melted out the conduit into a full blown extension of the summit magma chamber extending down the rift zone.

    • That should be fun !! Hopefully, the folk who fled last time have not been allowed to re-build…

      FWIW, that lava ‘shelf’ at the coast must be getting rather sodden and unstable by now. Pile much fresh stuff on top, and might we see a mini-slump ??

      • Lava deltas are only unstable when they are active, actually. A’a deltas also tend to be solid while pahoehoe like from Pu’u O’o is underlain by rubble.

    • Chad
      I noticed that they did mark a lot of smaller quakes. We think smaller quakes do not matter, but they are marking these out beyond there standard automatic limits. They are looking at them, I think they also mark these with a change in the deformation. The collapse had left voids, I think they are all filled in.

      We will see.

      • The fact that since about the last two months there has been a big increase in quakes along the upper east rift is telling, it was totally silent before July, now it is more seismic than the south flank. There was also a cluster of tiny quakes just like the recent one about 3 weeks ago but around Pauahi crater, same depth too.

  17. Fun debate and research

    Who haves the most fluid sillicate magma is still unknown!
    Its either Hawaii or Nyiragongo
    The contest rages on Nyiragongo or Kilaūea

    Kilaūea haves much more sillica
    But Kilaūea is VERY hot and that breaks down the sillica polymers.
    Kilaueas summit magmas have displayed viscosities as low as less than 30 Pa.s at 1250 C at summit. ( 10 Pa.s lowest viscosity measured for Hawaii ) Kilaueas summit lava lakes and flows display very low viscosity because of high temperature. Kilaūea summit lava lake was expectionaly smooth and fluid.

    Kilaūea coastal flows are much cooler and more viscous the flows you seen and visited. There we are talking about 1170 C And 200 Pa.s still very fluid.

    Lowest viscosity for Hawaii summit around 10 Pa.s
    Similar to thicker car oil

    Nyiragongo is of course the other candidate with the lowest sillica of all sillicate volcanoes on Earth.
    Nyiragongos insanely low sillicate content, Nephelinite 36% compared to Hawaiis 50% is what lowers the polymerisation sigficantly more than any other lava at lower temps. Nyiragongo haves much lower polymerization than almost any other magma.

    Nyiragongo is also very hot
    1200 C or more at summit.
    Same temperature as Hawaii summit But much lower sillica content. That should make it much more fluid, but there is no diffrence in these videos.

    A maximum of 60 Pa.s viscosity been estimated for Nyiragongo summit lava lake with many much lower measurements ( good below 20 )

    Its here with 1977 that the Nyiragongo legend comes in with a 2 Pa.s viscosity estimated for 1977 upper vents, from flow splash structures and crystal free composition. But insanely high eruptive rates ( 6000 cubic meters a second ) is also a major player behind the lava flash flood. Similarly low viscosity was estimated of 2002 upper vents
    Same as thicker motor oil.
    High eruptive rates and superheating.

    Both are very fluid

    Hawaii lowest eruption viscosity 10 Pa.s and possible lower.

    Nyiragongo lowest eruption viscosity less than 10 Pa.s

  18. Iceland canyon flood events…

    Followed a PhysOrg report’s link on river erosion back to this still-relevant (2015) report…

    Floods created home of Europe’s biggest waterfall, study shows

    The Jökulsárgljúfur canyon in Iceland, which is 28 km long and 100 metres deep in places, was formed by a series of distinct floods that occurred thousands of years apart, a study shows.

    “Researchers connected major shifts in the landscape to a series of extreme floods, which took place 9,000, 5,000 and 2,000 years ago. The floods were caused by volcanic activity under glaciers, and each was powerful enough to tear up bedrock. They formed the canyon’s 100-metre walls and pushed three waterfalls, including Dettifoss, back upstream by as much as 2km during each flood.

    Scientists from the University of Edinburgh, who carried out the study, say the findings demonstrate the long-term impact that extreme flood events can have on landscapes. The floods were triggered by eruptions from volcanoes beneath Vatnajökull, the largest ice cap in Iceland. One of these volcanoes, Bárdarbunga, has been active since August 2014.

    Not on scale of the famous ‘Channelled Badlands’, but definitely events to watch from a safe distance, preferably via web-cam !!

    • Was probaly trigged by
      Laki sized subglacial eruptions.
      A long row of 2011 looking pheratoplinian ash columns and then 1000 meters high lava fountains shoots up the icesheet. When cones built up in the meltwater lakes.

      Souch Eruptions woud create huge ice canyons with massive meltwater lakes inside it

  19. I have had my gripes with the IGEPN’s Chiles-Cerro negro but this is the most RIDICULOUS B.S that I have read!
    I am legitimately angry! Here, have a read!
    No seismic activity? No earthquakes? Bull$!@# !
    I don’t even have to bring the SGC earthquake count, (It is a LOT more then 0) Just look at these seismograms!

    That doesn’t look like “0” to me!

      • Where did you find that out? I can’t seem to find anything related to that on the site. The site always goes done at some point but it never seems to affect the reports.

        • Im not sure what you find so alluring about this particular volcano, it is not atypical for where it is and many volcanoes in the Andes go dormant for millennia and then erupt again as though nothing happened, no VEI 7 needed. Not trying to be rude but this is borderline obsessive.

          • Well I am obsessive like that but my personal opinion of the volcano’s potential is not my focus here. The IGEPN reporting no earthquakes last week when some obviously happened. Just read the last week report from the SGC OVSP.. That’s the thing, this volcano hasn’t stopped being restless since 2013 and is stressing regional faults. I think there are plenty of other more scary volcanoes but this discrepancy in data and reporting is driving me mad.

          • No this is something completely different and I have written a few articles about it (A potential issue, Inconsistancy and cerro negro and calling all volcanians)

  20. Chile is very seismically active in tectonic (non-volcanic) manner, good sized quake nearly every day and several in the 5.5 to 6.5 range in the last several days. Maybe their volcano center only counts seismic activity related to that specific volcano.

    • I don’t know if you’re talking about the volcano or the country. The signals on the seismometer are volcanic and the recent earthquakes in South America don’t leave these types of signals.
      Tectonic earthquakes have not occured here lately.

      • I was guessing that some of the signals were tectonic or the government there thought they were tectonic or perhaps not related to the volcano, and wasn’t counting them. In Indonesia, the government reports different kinds of activity (distant tectonic, near tectonic, low frequency volcanic, high frequency volcanic, “hembusan” (translates to blowing, might mean gas emission), ash eruption, etc.

    • Well, with a visibility about 400m here NE Oregon our Temp has been steady at 20-25C not much up or down. I’m interested to see if the extra Nuclei in the stimulates rain as we are forecast to get thunderstorms near mid week. extra rain won’t hurt, Depends on how much gets to the upper atmosphere . Experiencing ST. Helens was more or less a cooling event but the ash cloud was higher..
      Being an old weather Observer I’m curios …
      Haven’t posted much due to dealing with my wife and he stroke therapy, which is going well.

      • Even here in Berlin, Germany we have some ash from the fires, more than 5.500 Miles away. Not much, but it is visible, like a little veil on the blue sky.

      • The temperature in Southern California dropped considerably with the smoke. We were having a nasty heat wave. On the day of the most extreme smoke (the sun was red, this was the day the sky was orange in the Bay Area) the forecast was 90 F (323C) but it only got up to about 75 F (23C). That is why I started wondering. The smoke has cooled down the weather locally quite significantly.


    I wonder how this changes all the models of the future collision with the Andromeda galaxy. Most of the simulations presume no change from now, but if the Milky Way of that era has an AGN and much larger SMBH than it does now that could change things quite a bit. None of the models include any of the sattelite galaxies either because they were assumed to be insignificant, but LMC has a revised mass that is in the same range as the Triangulum galaxy which often is included in the models, and both of the MCs are apparently going to slam into the center of our galaxy and set it into quasar mode.
    as a side note, I wonder if the Milky Way will become like the Cartwheel galaxy after this head on collision.

    Maybe both are questions for Albert 🙂

  22. Clear lake seems to be having a flux of earthquakes at the moment, mostly around Cobb Mountain. Interesting area – long term activity including relatively recent (10kya), large geothermal output and a real mix of eruptive styles.

  23. Amazing that tropical corals can
    grow in Bermuda! Latitude 32 …
    Hawaii is latitude 20.

    Bermuda is often confused with Bahamas and belived to be situated close – by. Bermuda is infact 1600 kilometre north of Bahamas.
    I think that only brain corals and some fan corals exist in Bermudas waters, while very warm in late summer,
    gets too cold for most corals in winter.

    Thanks to the warm currents of the Gulf Stream the water in late summer can be as warm as + 28 C at latitude 41 at US east coast!, as seen here in this link.
    During the Ice Age the Gulf Stream was active too,40.33,1002/loc=-60.705,40.554

    • The corals are kept warm by all the nuclear powered ships that sank in the bermuda triangle 🙂

    • Chad Bermuda acually haves an amazing climate

      Always around in low – middle 70 s to middle 80 s
      ( Subtropical Oceanic Climate )
      Extremely pleasant all year around, and an ideal climate for older persons and small childern. Its oceanic and its in Subtropics and thats why its so mild and gentle. The Gulf Stream brings plenty of warm clear nutrient poor water to Bermuda and allows ”brain corals” to survive at lat 32.

      Gulf Stream brings tropical sea temperatures in summer almost all way to Canada border in the main current.
      I been at Bermuda and it was very pleasant and warm mild,
      I was there in autumn 2015.
      It was very nice and really warm in the ocean.

      The deep tropics below lat 19 can be too muggy and hot for most arctic Scandinavians.
      I myself live at freezingly
      ( lat 67 at current, visiting friends in Kiruna )

    • But Hawaiis Big Island is my favorite vacation spot : )
      The worlds largest volcanoes
      And as many as 8 unique climate zones on Big Island.
      Hawaii haves everything! from polar deserts to savannah to tropical rainforest, its an incredible variation on Big Island.

      But lowland in Big Island ( Kailua Kona ) and Hilo can get very hot and humid specialy in summer. 95 F thats 35 C
      in the shadow, can occur in summer.

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