The VC Bar

Welcome to the Volcano Café bar, a place for all things on or off topic and inane ramblings. There has been a need of late to find a place better suited to various theories, long comments and enthusiasm. This page will be less moderated than the main article pages and cleared out every month (this may change depending on use).

Have fun and don’t forget to tip the barman 😉

4,753 thoughts on “The VC Bar

  1. Shevluch has already regrown most of its lava dome that was destroyed the other month, and there is probably also another dome that is either about to form or is already erupting on the outer flank of the volcano at the same time.

    So we have a gigantic stratovolcano that has just done a VEI 4 and already erupted at two places simultaneously in response… The mountain is 3.2 km high, before the collapse it probably made it past 4 km, probably the biggest active stratovolcano on the planet right now. I think in the longer term it also might be a supervolcano progenitor but doing a VEI 4 once or twice a decade with somes inbetween seems more of its mode of operation right now… 🙂

    • Yes a prolific producer of sillic magma one may imagine that Shevluch maybe sucking magma from a giant active intermidante composition batholith, must have a copious reserves of sillicate magma .. Probaly underlying rising basaltic magma.. yes seems to be the seed of a large future caldera .. althrough coud be too well vented for that now.

    • Still not the monster volcanoes I dreams of 😂.. I which there was an ultimate volcano simulator

      But Io is the only thing with perhaps Hawaii and Africa thats tastey now for me

      No volcano is too large : D

      • I really want to see a modern CGI simulation of various large eruptions, from VEI 6 and up. Would also love to see simulations of Laki, Thorsja, and Eldgja.

        I know there was one from New Zealand showing the first minute or two of a large offshore eruption, but it was a little archaic looking. I want something with all the bells and whistles of 2023 GPU horsepower, and simulated as accurately as possible.

        • For a smaller eruption I’d really love to see a simulation of Tarawera, that would be a fun one as a whacky basaltic fissure-plinian eruption (with a maar-like blowout of Lake Rotomahana?).

        • Laki would rather need a Volcanic Effusive Index instead of the Volcanic Explosivity Index.
          From an aesthetical point of view I prefer VEI3 explosive volcanic eruptions, because they usually show a broader variety of volcanic phanomena combined with the ash.

          • I just have difficulty wrapping my mind around the scale of high end explosive volcanism, it’s been an intense fascination of mine. I look at pictures of St Helen’s eruption column from a distance (which looks monstrous) and struggle to even comprehend a Tambora sized event.

  2. Climate & Weather topic: The North Atlantic ocean has got a persistent anticyclone now with center between Ireland and Iceland. It lets the cold and dry continental northeasterly winds dominate in Europe. At the same time a cyclone zone of subtropical depressions has been established to the south of the anticyclone. They bring rain weather to areas where summer usually is a dry season and where tourists are going to travel to.

    • This does happen some years. It normally means a cold but dry spring here. This year it is dry but the temperatures are holding up.

    • I remember past year. As soon as we got to May heat-waves started happening and we went into a terrible drought that continued all summer, there were practically no thunderstorms in central Spain past year. This year is the complete opposite, we’ve come from a drought when it should have been raining, and now in May the weather has turned much more unstable, with thunderstorms taking place daily in central Spain, and models show this situation continuing well into June. The weather is still sunny and “nice” in between the thunderstorms. The rain is much appreciated but is still unseasonal and as far as I understand this has been a problem for the cherry harvest.

      • For Europe it looks like trade winds have moved north. In the past 80% of weather came from the west. The rest was mostly north, south and in between. Eastern direction were the excemption. But since around 2003 wind directions from east and northeast have increased. In Spring and early summer they carry dry and relatively cool air from Russia to Europe. The cool air and comfortable temperatures are good to do sport or hiking outside. They are pleasant for humans. But they hide that at the same time a lack of rain happens. Droughts sometimes come on cool subtle paths, not like an Armageddon heatwave.
        The subtropical part of Europe is a bit different to the Temperate zone. The Mediteranean climate in the past had rain in winter and reliably sun in summer. Now it looks like there can be years with drought and years with flood. That’s difficult for agriculture and water management.

        • Coud Mediterranean turn tropical again ? ( its been before ) If humans dont stop their crazy cO2 output?

          Last time it was tropical in terms of winter temperatures in Mediterranean was either Oligocene or Early Miocene

      • When Mediterranean years up to 30 C in the late summer you gets almost tropical humidity as well as water evaporate and increase humidity, that forms the humid excotic late summer nights in Sicily

        This humidity fuels the convective medicanes…

        Early summer in Mediterranean and middle is very dry in terms of air when the ocean have not heated up yet. Best time to swim in Mediterranean is August

    • And I never gets thunderstorms : (
      I guess .. its too much ocean around the Scandinavian Penninsula, a cool ocean scares away land loving summer convection. Most of my rainfall and snow are from front based nimbostratus precipitation rather than convective rainfall. In summers If long time passes between extratropical cyclones in summers .. we can even get drougths.

      Summers in Northen Scandinavia are cool sometimes pleasant. While Summers in South Scandinavia are warm and pleasant. Cumulus convection is quite limited .. its much more common in Finland thats a large landmass joined with Russia.

      • It may once become different when the Baltic Sea heats like a Scandinavian Mediteranean sea and high (5000km above sea level) cold air comes in from Arctic in fall. If water surface has 20°C and 5000km has -30°C, then you should get nice thunderstorms.

      • Yes thats a sea rain effect
        Cold air over warm water makes convective weather.
        Well Mediterranean Sea heats up to 30 C in late summer and add in cooler air above and you even can get tropical cyclones in Mediterranean in Autumn so called ”medicanes”.

        Here in Baltic Sea most of the convective weather happens in Early winter during russian cold outbreaks as cold air flows over a warm 16 c Baltic Sea. That forms some intense winter Cumulunimbus and Stockholm can be totaly buried by convective snowfall called a ”snow cannon” althrough winters in South Scandinavia is quite mild..

        Western Scandinavia can also get huge snow cumulonimbus If cold winter greenland air flows over the warm waters of the Gulf Stream. So convective weather in Northen Europe is often a winter phenomena over the oceans, rather than a summer one. Gothenburg often have winter ligthning If there is souch windflow.

        Baltic Sea temperatures range from 2 to 22 C in South open parts and up to 28 C in inner bays at warm summer days. Northen Baltic Sea rarely gets over 15 C in the ocean in summer. The Baltic Sea unlike the Mediterranean is severely Eutrophic

        • Yes, I remember when I was in Bergen 2005 that in November there were many Cumulunimbus with snow showers offshore on North Sea, while on mainland there was nice sunny weather after some snowfall.

          Summer in Scandinavia is difficult for thunderstorms. The sun is still a bit to low and the air is not “explosive” enough. But the future can become different. Climate change is full with surprises.

    • The worst daily thunderstorms are found in the deep tropics and summer humid subtropics. They may not be supercells but showing Hector them .. they are immense monsters anyway with anvils and overshooting tops for 100 s of km

      Spain generaly lacks the humidity for massive thunderstorms

    • Very limited thunderstorm activity in South Scandinavia as well despite warm summers .. I guess its all cool ocean around it. Same cool ocean prevents Iceland from having any thunderstorms at all

      Needs warmer Sea temperatures to allow strong land convection I guess. With a warm inland and cold coast you gets crazy seabreezes too

    • Tourist weather is also a good time for the next tourist eruption in Iceland, maybe the Department of Tourism should order one 😉

      • Iceland have crappy weather rainy cold winters and cool rainy summers with only a few t shirt days possible perhaps

        But I wants To live there anyway because of the geology 🙂 with a Nordic Citizenship Iceland is easy prey I guess 🙂 looking for useful skills

        • I love Iceland’s climate, though I’m someone that despises heat and humidity. We’ve been four times in early Icelandic winter and it’s just the perfect refreshing chilliness that wakes me up and makes one feel alive. Granted, we drove to Akureyri this past trip and the north of the country is significantly colder, but it’s not too much different than my deep winter climate at home in the northeast US.

          Summers topping out around 15C in Iceland are the real prize, relative to my summers now that are 30+ with high dews.

        • Ops did not read exactly where you lived Aaa you gets the warmth of the Gulf Stream in summer I guess

          Im in South Sweden now .. boring because No volcanoes But better weather than Lapland

          • Yeah I live in the suburban shadow of NYC. Since the 2015-2016 super El Niño we’ve been dominated by an extremely warm pattern with the southeast / west Atlantic ridge flexing mightily northward inundating us with warmth and humidity even in winter. Had one of the longest streaks of above normal winter temps since the super El Niño.

            Interestingly that year the NYC area had one of its biggest all time snowstorms with some locations getting over 30 inches (sorry less familiar with centimeter equations than using temps in C). This storm
            Occurring in otherwise one of our warmest winters on record as most of the Continental US was flooded in warm Pac air from the super Niño.

            Interestingly our snowiest and coldest winters in my area are during moderate or Modoki Niños and sometimes a La Niña that follows a Niño. Triple dip Niñas like what we just exited flooded us with ridging.

          • But we can get very cold in winter. The coldest winter reading in the past century at my location was -35C, and routinely we are -10 to 16ish C during winter. I love cold and snow though, ours is just normally strictly limited to deep winter. I would prefer a more uniformly cold climate but I’m an oddity there.

          • It’ll be quite bad for the planet if we see a super Niño form right now, as it’ll likely surge us beyond 1.5c globally with the massive equatorial heat release.

            Fortunately some very smart people I follow are prescribing caution that the trade winds are yet to relax enough to allow the formation of that strong a Niño, among a few other factors. They feel moderate to low end strong is more likely this year, but super is still possible. I’m hoping against that.

      • I guess you live in South US Gulf Coast or close to it= hellish humid summers for soure unlivable almost.

        Yes Icelands climate is not bad, its basicaly like South Sweden, but without a warm summer. I have the same mild winters but I also enjoys pleasant 26 c summers. The only thing thats missing for me in Iceland is a ”warm summer” But I wants live there anyway because of the geology

        • My wife and I have toyed with applying for work visas. It’s easier for you coming from Sweden but still possible. I also considered attending college there, but what I would want to focus in is partially only in Icelandic instruction. Wife and I have learned quite a bit but it’s a difficult language as a native English speaker.

          Though happy to report I impressed a local with my pronunciation of Eyjafjallajökull on our last trip; probably one of their most frequently mispronounced and meme’d on words by other countries.

          Really cool language though, essentially one of the oldest and least changed from my understanding and connected to Old Norse.

  3. Kilauea stiring again, one day it will break, somehow and somewhere…

    Strong shallow quake at the end of the SWRZ connector, mag ~3 at 2.3 km depth, at 7:20 AM local time. Also a small swarm at the start of the connector at the south caldera area. There have also been a lot of those really tiny quakes plotted on the map again too, which are usually below the range that USGS puts on the map and I think these could be tremors or at least related.

    Doesnt mean an eruption is about to break out but these tiny quakes have always become numerous when magma starts rising and in the final days before an intrusion starts. The last 3 eruptions have gone immediately to the surface in under an hour so there was no intrusion phase to speak of exactly but with the lake so high and quakes to quite far down the SWRZ an intrusion and/or eruption there is probably something to consider at this point, especially with the quake above. Although historical ERZ intrusions have usually erupted very soon after onset too… 🙂

    • There are earthquake to the south-southwest of Summit towards seismometer MITD. Is this to the east of the SWRZ or still inside? Before the summit eruption 9/1974 seismicity was in the same area. It was followed on 31st December by a short but strong SWRZ eruption which was related to Koa’e fault system, to wich also the May 5th 1973 short upper ERZ eruption (Hiaka crater) was related. Do the present earthquakes happen near KFS (Koa’e fault system)?

      • The SWRZ connector is basically where the Koae faults stop and the SWRZ itself begins. So it is possible that the quakes are not actually right above where magma is but adjacent to it in some way. The same might also be true of the ERZ connector. Although at least on the ERZ the quakes go right under all of the pit craters so likely the quakes are immediately surrounding magma. Or perhaps the two connectors are not actually analogous.

        In any case, quakes mean there is strain on the rock making it crack, so there is either very strong inflation at the summit that is pushing the flank faults even at a distance, or there is also magma going right down the SWRZ that is pushing locally. Most likely it is a bit of both.

        The Kaoiki quakes are at least evidence that Kilauea is really pushing its weight around. After the eruption last year the southeast flank of Mauna Loa has been sliding faster and that includes towards Kilauea. The general info will say otherwise but at least on my observation I dont think Mauna Loa can actually push Kilauea out of the way at least not where its summit is so the conflict zone is very seismic whek Kilauea is getting ready to erupt or do something. So Kaoiki is probably caused by both volcanoes but it is controlled by Kilauea. I also think is probably why the NERZ is so short and eruptions from it directly north of Kilauea are very rare, those huge lava floods like Panaewa might only happen in this location when Kilauea has had a caldera collapse recently and only if Mauna Loa is also primed to do so but doesnt go first.

        I wont give a prediction on Kilauea erupting soon because it has already far exceeded my previous ones, but if it doesnt erupt by the end of the year then things will get very interesting. After a year an eruption is basically inevitable unless something crazy happens like a full scale deep rift intrusion. If an intrusion of 0.1 to 0.2 km3 goes into the SWRZ then all hell breaks loose there, the rift isnt long enough to contain that much magma as it is, and the ERZ isnt there to passively absorb the rest of it like was the case in the 70 years before… The Kau desert might need a new name in 30 years.

        • The deflation graph shows that now significant up/down happens now. It looks to me like a magma storage is slowly and steadily filling. We may have to wait until it is filled up.
          1974 the eruptions were partially supported by Mauna Loa’s inflation prior to the eruption 1975. So the present sliding of Mauna Loa’s southeast flank can indeed increase pressure on Kilaueas Summit and SWRZ.
          1919-1920 the largest historical SWRZ eruption happened three years after the 1916 summit collapse. It is possible that after a summit collapse after some years a big SWRZ eruption follows. Now we have five years after 2018. The partially present blockade of ERZ may help Kilauea to concentrate magma and activity on Summit and SWRZ.

          • The 1974 eruptions at Kilauea were probably actually hindered by Mauna Loa, the eruptions were identical to the 1971 sequence but the eruption in September 1974 didnt go outside the caldera unlike its 1971 predecessor. the actual 1974 SWRZ eruption was a unique thing that hadnty happened before in decades and maybe over a century, it was more analogous to an ERZ intrusion than the intrusions that made Mauna Iki or the 1971 flows. But similar large intrusions happened several times on the SWRZ before 1983, none erupted apart from 1974 but one can imagine if Pu’u O’o didnt last that more magma would have gone southwest and eruptions would have begun. Well, now the ERZ is out of action, so might be making up lost time elsewhere… 🙂

            I think the fact Mauna Loa has recently deflated might if anything have reduced pressure on Kilaueas SWRZ. It might not have, the distance might be too far. But the situation is probably quite different in that regard from 1974. It is though probably very similar to the situation Kilauea was in in the early years of the 80s, before Pu’u O’o started and rapid inflation after the 1975 quake was in full swing. Only thing is that the ERZ is not deflated but if anything is actually over full and is trying to backflow to the summit and SWRZ.

  4. Chad do you get any thunderstorms?
    I guess Tasmania is very unfriendly too like Scandinavia for solar based convection.. as its a landmass sourrounded by a cool ocean. I get No more than a few weak fuzzy anvils during warm summer days, as the ocean breeze is always too near

    • Thunderstorms are pretty rare, maybe a little less than once a year and a storm counts as a few strikes but I have seen a few pretty serious ones. New Years in 2009 was huge, I was only 10 at the time but remember it clearly 🙂

    • Pretty odd tropical pattern in Mediterranean now with daily strong thunderstorms .. the Cumulunimbus anvils are totaly popping over solar warmed landmasses check the visible satelites. Tropical in terms of rainfall now .. but not yet in temperatures as it not reached 30.

      Odd weather pattern and will be fun to see If this presist in the summer ahead. I guess as the atmosphere gets more humid as it gets warmer .. we may loose our dry climate zones in the far future

      • Maybe you should do vacation in Tyrol, there you have great mountainous landscape with thunderstorms now …

  5. Why does this site intermittently cause this?

    HTTPS-Only Mode Alert
    Secure Site Not Available

    Reloading fixes it, but it’s annoying, and it’s clearly wrong. This site does indeed support https.

  6. Eeeeeeek the mosquitoes here is a plauge
    Woud be better to move to whole Europe continent 20 latitudes south. Althrough Africa haves to be moved 20 south too If thats the case, going to be some dramatic results of that.
    That woud at least turn Sahara more inhabitable.

    I woud end up in latitude 44 and with a very difftent, New perhap humid subtropical weather, and UK woud become as warm as Madeira. The Baltic Sea woud become a warm tourist resort all way until october

    And Iceland woud become very pleasant indeed : ) perhaps the best so in this radicaly altered Europe being as warm or warmer than NZ. And the Mediterranean woud be become one big hell I guess, completely unlivable, woud be fun with data simulations of this

    • Sicily woud end up at latitude 17 and probaly have a climate similar to middle Sudan with even in winter pushing up to 27 C and summers being an unlivable 43 to 54 C… the Mediterranean woud become very much like Persian Gulf or even hotter than that, with Sea surface temperatures pushing up to 36 C creating an incredibley dangerous combination of heat and humidity in the summer and retaining more of its heat in winter. A summer Moonsoon Maybe also possible .. transforming South Europe into a climatologicaly hell version of central India

      Its possible that much of central Europe woud become Mediterranean or desertic or Savannah like. With Mediterranean conditions going up in Sourthen Scandinavia

      Only Northen Finland woud have a traditional European climate I guess

    • Changes in Earths tilt and spinn is the only way, but thats likey set within a few limits beacuse of the Moon and the pull from the gas giants and the sun.

      Still my scenario is probaly going to make Europe very uncomfortable to live in. Places like Germany woud turn into something like uppermost India, agiculture may still be possible

      I guess Albert will not like it at all


    Quite cold winter night in Sourthen New Zealand now, some areas in lowlands are even below freezing. Perhaps supprising knowing that NZ is hyper oceanic climate wise, while nights are cold, days are quite mild even in south NZ. It does look like that Invercargill can even get some snowfall at sealevel as it have been before, perhaps from cold fronts from Antartica

    • I live in the NYC metro and the wildfire smoke those two days was easily the craziest abnormal atmospheric phenomenon I’ve ever personally witnessed. The sky took on an apocalyptic, Blade Runner yellow orange, and the air stung the eyes and lingered in the throat. I saw AQI reach as high as 400 in the region, which is mind boggling.

      In the days leading up people were taking pictures of the sun and able to view sunspots easily in the photographs, sort of like the naked eye observation of sun spots in the aftermath of large eruptions in the LIA.

      It was “cool,” but not something I ever wish to experience again. It was incredibly apparent how harmful air like that is to breathe.

      • NYC looked during those days like Pejing often does. It was the heaviest air pollution since 9/11 2001. The Canadian forest fires were epic with their regional impact on New England States.

        Climate change may shift the global steppes and deserts to the north. This can destroy many woods by drought and fire.

        • The northeast US has warmed disproportionately more than the rest of the country, especially in winter. My area lost its humid continental DFa climate designation in favor of humid subtropical CFa (no winter month averaging below 32F, which we used to regularly), with some stating CFa now extends up along SEMA right up to Boston.

          I’m a winter guy and love my snowstorms. I’ve also been interested in meteorology my entire life. The past 23 years we’ve set snowfall records in this area, but it’s begun to follow a ‘feast or famine’ regime where we’re have winters like 22-23 dominated by warmth and -PNA (keeping the cold air on the west coast). This past winter could’ve been a blockbuster from a snow perspective as we had near record Greenland blocking in Dec that repeated again in March, but the background Nina forcing relentlessly kept the wave paths unfavorable and the warmth faucets on (save for a couple 48 hour cool shots).

          Aside from my area, even the June 2021 PNW heatwave… I’ll never forget a climate scientists stating how that event essentially broke their models, because the actual recorded temperatures in several places in the PNW and Canada actually exceeded the theoretically derived ‘maximum temp’ for the area under historical climate parameters. Implications aren’t exactly great.

          • The super Niño in 15-16 seemed to alter northeast winters in its aftermath (as well as catapulting the globe above 1C of warming), as we saw some weak, uncoupled Niño’s and then a big triple dip Niña since, and nearly all of those years have been paltry for snow totals in the area with a couple exceptions (a good month here or there, a big storm here or there, but overall declining averages).

            I’m actually curious what a non- Super, coupled Niño could do for us this winter, though our best snowfall seasons seem to follow Modoki Niño’s which this will not be. Hoping this one stays strong and doesn’t cross into Super territory, because then we just flood with warmth along with the rest of the country. Though we retain the long shot of getting one blockbuster nor’easter like what occurred in 2016.

            2009-2015 was an almost unbelievable stretch of cold, snowy seasons. I worry I won’t get to experience a stretch like that again, though of course that’s not a given, it just appears to be growing increasingly unlikely.

          • The Arctic region gets the highest increase of rising temperatures, and I guess that also weather patterns will change there more radically than in tropical areas. The northern US states experience this fast change of climate. Added to this the north-eastern states share the problem of “eastern sides” of continents in the westwind zone like China and Eastern Siberia in Asia. It was always a bit difficult there to get enough rain, but now the tendency makes it worse and worse.

            Winter is still possible. The higher temperatures in the Arctics are still cold enough to freeze water and make snow. But they’re not as cold as f.e. in the 1940s. Cold air only comes weak or in small “pockets” which don’t stay long time.

            90 years ago the USA had the disaster “Dust Bowl”, a mix of drought and wind erosion of fruitfull farmland. This shows a possible disaster scenario which may happen again somehow somewhere.

  8. If the Titanic Submarine imploded then its not strange at all, it was a cylinder the crew compartment, not an ideal shape for the deep sea, the best is a ball. That submarine sounded very experimental as well, and was never tested to modern standards in terms of pressure.

    With kilometers of water pressure above they where gone in an instant, even a milimeter thin water jet woud cut you in Half at that pressure!
    If it imploded they where gone in an instant .. unsettling news and potential situation

    • The acoustic signals suggest the craft is in one piece on the ocean floor. M guess would be an electrical fault. I doubt that it would have passed a safety inspection and it seems hard to believe there was no rescue vessel kept on stand-by. It is a terrible situation.

      • The Jupiter effect I guess same thing happens to atmospheric probes

        Disturbing news.. the crew where there, and then just gone …

  9. I have a new VC article … I will submitt it tomorrow, its about my Etna summit expedition I did 7 years ago
    Been a long time, so perhaps good to put it up on VC.. you will have a look tomorrow, its quite finished

    • I have included most of my Photos in the article as well .. What I saw was quite a sight.. No eruption but still apocalyptic scenery defentivly

      Its a memoair trying to remeber what we did on that day

    • I have sent the Article..about my little adventure.. edit it to an article

    • Submitted it … make soure to have our Photos with in the article, I have my own VC login too .. so call make last Re – finement before posting it

      • Im very bad at writing in general .. but woud be good to put it up on VC .. I wants to do something with my photos that I and friends took

        • Don’t be so hard on yourself, your writing is fine. Grammar is not perfect all the time and you tend to repeat yourself a bit. Other than that the writing is not bad, especially for someone writing in a second language. You provide interesting content and your enthusiasm is inspiring. I’d say be proud of yourself and keep up the good work!

  10. I heard about a ‘pizza’ picture being discovered in the murals at Pompeii and thought about your article ‘Vesuvius in Retrospect’, which I had only just read this last weekend!
    “Naples is the original home of the pizza (it is hard to find anything else to eat in its restaurants), and looking at Pompeii it is easy to see how this would have fitted in with the people on the carriages grabbing food from the passing displays using the pizza base as their plate.”
    Nice one Albert!

  11. I may have Lead poisoning, I had very dangerous behaviour as child, burning lots of brothers lead air Gun ammunition with a torch
    We breathed in the fumes alot as it got burned into lead oxides, we did that quite a few times looking at glowing hot burning lead and breathed in the toxic fumes

    This coud explain lots of health issues I have, souch with sleep and partly perhaps coud explain why the broken foot is healing so bad.

    Not feeling happy because injuries from that exposure are irreversible, but I still preforms quite well mentaly despite the dangerous past activity, able to write articles for VC but thats right, my curiousity is defentivly my own downfall. Coud damage from this be detected more than a decade after ? planning to check with a doctor

    • Lead is everywhere in the enviroment mostly from human Industrial pollution and volcanoes release small ammounts in their gases, so any daily lead ingestion is un – avoidable as same is with dioxins

      But thats right, lead is very bad for soure

    • I have pretty good school grades since high school and that woud not be possible with Severe lead inhalation

      So What ever happened the exposure was minimal. But we burned a handfull of lead bullets, the yellow lead oxides was stunning to see

  12. Hi Albert,

    I’ve tried to contact you a few weeks ago using the address mentioned in the “About” section ( Could you please check if you’ve received my email? If not where could I write you?


  13. Yes I wants To move to Iceland always wanted to do that, I have my Nordic Citizenship and looking for a job skill

    Only negative with Iceland is the summers that are not always good at the coasts, even If the winters are very mild.

    New latitudes for Iceland, woud Reykjavik at 54 and westfjords at 57 woud it solve the bad summers? and yet still allow for volcanic – glacial landscapes? well I want to live there anyway

    • Best woud be to have it in the Azores region but then I can forget .. Tolkien – glacial – volcanic landscapes that makes Iceland so stunning

    • woud Reykjavik at lat 54 and westfjords at 57 woud it solve most of the bad summers? perhaps better?
      Well only possible with changes in tilt, spinn of the planet


    This may intrest Chad in how a bird woud see a volcanic eruption. Many diurnal birds see “non spectral colors” that we cannot, when UV cone mixes with the visible light colors in ways our brains cannot, so they do see things diffirent, paper lower link, this probaly haves an effect on how color looks for them, some falcons with 1, 6 million cones per mm3 is impressive as hell

    Hummingbirds have much much less acuity than humans but… very good color eye, still woud not supprise even If small songbirds have evolved editing software in their brains that makes a much sharper image than expected for their tiny maculae

    • Actually as early as 2025 according to their results, which is REALLY crazy. Nothing else I can add, that speaks for itself.

      I would be surprised if it collapsed that suddenly after the slowing was detected, I would think logically it’d take a couple to a few more decades until that transition to the slowed state occurs. But obviously they feel it’s plausible this could be a very near future phenomenon.

      I’d be curious to see how quickly it flipped the the sluggish state to begin the Younger Dryas, though being caused by the meltwater pulse of the Laurentide is a different mechanism than what’s happening today as Greenland isn’t nearly as large.

  15. it’s true sugar, Not saturated fat, is behind cardiovascular disease and dementia

    Sugar causes Inflammation in the body, thus elevated CRP. Sugar causes all the inflammation in the arteries, causing cholesterol to “go” there to repair the inflammation. The more sugar, the more inflammation, the more cholesterol, which eventually clogs the arteries. So the bottom line is that sugar is the culprit.

    Fat and natural foods, give No inflammation at all or raise in colesterol

    Blaming cholesterol is like blaming the firemen for a fire… high colesterol is an indicator of sugar inflammation

    In the western world we eat ourselves to death on refined carbohydrates and products with high sugar intake

    Sugar not only causes inflammation but also chemical glycation in the blood vessels.

    The dietary advice is completely wrong in the Western world, the old dogma “fat is bad, carbs is good” is a recipe for disaster. The food pyramid and dietary advices itself is produced by the sugar industry

    We humans function much better on fat than on refined sugar. Natural tribes eat alot of fat and never gets heart disease.
    Sadely almost No doctors knows the truth. They been learnt the wrong theory and therfore cannot give good or correct food guidelines

    • My father is a medial professor and grown up with the 1980 s food guidelines. He have always belived that white bread and sugar was healthy and fat was ”bad”

      Its .. its a disgrace these greedy capitalist intrests from the grain and sugar industry that have regulated these faulty food guidelines

      • Well medical doctor but they dont know the truth, most of them so I had to Re – school him on fat vs sugar

    • The solution is pretty simple.. skip
      ”Refined Carbohydrates” and high glycemic foods and turn to a low glycemic ancestral diet .. for better blood sugar controll

      Your liver turns the fat you eat into the sugar you needs, so you dont need to eat any added refined sugars at all or processed foods

  16. Intresting stuff ( If it pops up ) winter and summer temperatures for Last Glacial Maximum Europe. Much colder than today pretty much everywhere in Europe, and Mediterranean is much colder in summer, yet still suprisingly having a relativly mild coastal winters and of course the Mediterranean sea did not freeze even during the winters. It woud also be alot drier during the glacial, so dry that most of Europe woud be a desert – tundra, the Mediterranean areas woud be a dry prarie steppe, Europe woud be very dusty during the LGM as well.

    The Mediterranean woud still be supprisingly habitable even in winter and explains why Neanderthals was concentrated there, still woud not supprise If freak cold waves from
    North coud bring Sicily down to – 6 c at times.

    Sicily and Spain and Mediterranean coud probaly look like the high moorlands of Ireland when the LGM was going with frequent unsettled weather, it woud still be alot drier than today

    • This is fascinating, thank you for sharing. I’ve looked into temps during the LGM but have never seen it laid out on a map like this.

      Similarly over in the US, the Laurentide extended down just about to NYC’s location, which is absolutely crazy to think about (I live near here).

      I love learning about differences during the Pleistocene.

  17. Big jump up in activity, over 100 quakes this past day at Kilauea. This was the background rate just before the last eruption, but things have ramped up much faster this time.

    Notable is the low rate of deep quakes, this is almost all shallow stuff above Kilaueas magma chamber. I would expect an eruption before the end of the month if this keeps up, but we will need to wait and see 🙂

    • The Maui wildfires now have killed 93 people. This shows that wildfires are much more dangerous for human life than Hawaii’s volcanoes:

      At the same time Askja has shown some unrest: A small steam plume on “Bátshraun” east of Viti crater; and the water temperature of Viti is 9K higher than usually in summer (now 27°C). Maybe an indicator that hydrothermal activity is rising. Hydrothermal and phreatic explosions can occur with smaller precursory signs than effusive or phreatomagmatic eruptions.

      • I have seen some reports that the residents of Lahaina were not warned of the fire, and would have had time to leave had that been afforded, which presents a whole new angle to the story that is best left out of VC. Fires happen yearly in the dry parts of Hawaii, typically without any real issue as they are contained.

        The biggest reason there hasnt been any fatalities from eruptions is because 2018 started slow, it took a month to get to the peak, and few stayed after that first day and were prepared to leave immediately if necessary. If it had begun at full strength on day 1 like is actually typical of Kilaueas eruptions, the results need not be imagined, but there are around 800 houses under the lava in Leilani Estates…

      • One report said there were nearly 1000 people unaccounted for. The majority of those will not have been present (second homes?) but it will be a while before we really know the full cost.

    • Looking at this now a few hours later the quakes are holding at a high rate, already only 6 hours into the day at between 30 and 40 quakes counted on the graph, which could be over 150 quakes if it stays like this all day. Lots of assumptions of course but this has accelerated very suddenly, an eruption even in this week is on the table now if things dont slow down. Today is barely 2 months since the last eruption ended.

    • Uwekahuna has risen 2.5 microradians in 2 days… This must be one of the highest inflation rates we’ve ever seen, similar to the inflation after the eruption in late June.

      • Interesting that there are no quakes at Kaoiki or northeast of Kilauea Iki underneath Volcano, like there were in June. Maybe that suggests the deflation in that eruption was almost entirely in the uppermost sections of storage with no loss of pressure sliggtly deeper where the chamber expanding can stress those faults.

        This does fit with how suddenly the last eruption ended too. If the dike then was an inward dipping sheet, even only a few degrees, then the caldera floor and the lava lake must be lifted up and held open against gravity, at the same time as more lava only adds to the lake and the pressure drops. The eruptions in January and June didnt slowly run out of pressure like before, but were cut off as soon as the pressure couldnt hold the lid up but still far from an actual complete reduction. The enormous increase in inflation over the past year is evident.

      • Is there a rise of a single spot inside the caldera or does the Kilauea caldera (Kaluapele) rise as a whole?

  18. If Hawaii was at the equator woud it be a dry side ? and woud it be even hotter than now ? ( already is quite hot even in december)

    And woud it have had glaciers in PETM ( I guess so )

    I been at Big Island many times in winter and always been supprised just how hot Kailua kona is even in January latitude 19 ( had 31 c the whole 3 weeks ) is there any diffrence at all from latitude 0 the equator at indonesia and western pacific?

    • What was most hellish in Hawaii was the solar baked lava fields..I have walked many of these and the Hualalai solar shorched pahoehoe at the coast was almost the worst

      Even If weather readed 30 c in januari at the lava fields it was probaly 53 c a meter above the surface due to solar radiation heating up these black rocks

      Nothing coud be less invinting, nothing coud be more hot and horrid, the black rocks heated by rays of the high sun, give the air a furnace like feel.. it was like a stove ..just walking 100 meters was Impossible. The day heat shimmers and spilled bottle water evaporate in just minutes, the promenade down to the beach was almost Impossible to do after 11 am. You gets de – hydrated insanely fast

      At night the hot black basalt is warm as it Re – radiate the stoored solar heat and very much liked by the local invasive lizards

      • You should have stayed on the Hilo side, I was in Leilani Estates and it was never above 25 C in late April, and 19 C at night. Although I never actually saw Mauna Loa or Mauna Kea at all in a whole week because of cloud cover 🙂

        Kona side definitely seems to be way hotter overall, probably as you say from all the exposed rock, especially the young flows that are black. On the Puna side flows need to be under a decade old to look black, the 1955 and 1960 flows are a similar weathered brown hue to the thousands of years old Kona side lava. There were abundant tiny ferns growing on the 2018 lava, by the time another eruption happens in a few decades it too will probably be greened over at ground level, Ahu’aila’au another overgrown hill, just one with a lot of history.

    • Been on Big Island many times .. Leilani is cooler because its in the highlands there are 11 climate zones on the Big Island No other place have that diversity 🙂 Volcano House is probaly my favorite Hotel

      Most beautyful was for me the cool Kilauea summit highlands rainforests ( very Jurassic looking! with all the moss and ferns, very similar to northen New Zealand rainforests ) and must have evolved so through convergence evolution, mysterious and primodial is Kilaueas summit nothing coud be less Epic or fantasy thrilling as well as seeing the lava and the ocean entries

      Hilo is warmer than Leilani does get up to 28 – 30 everyday and haves a very tropical rainforests look with coconuts and bean trees. The humidity is awful there. The kalapana flows where awful as well in midday.

      If Big Island was at latitude 0 woud it be any warmer at all in the lowlands? I dont think Kailua Kona woud be dry If that was the chase.

      Kailua Kona is one of the most beautyful places I have every visited, the sloped coast and the crystal clear blue waters ( 80 meters visibility is possible a few 100 m out ) and the peaceful small town feel and almost Northen australian looking greenery and that resulted in many visits there and fabulous sunsets in the volcanic vog I can imagine that the locals are relaxed .. the waters are so very clear that crashing waves looks like saphire or super blue Ice .. it was stunning to see

      Big Island is simply wonderful

    • Big Island is at latitude 19 to 20 and thats same as the Sahara desert .. and most oceans of that latitude is bone dry as well ( small atolls are tinder dry )

      Big Islands gigantic volcanoes, specialy Mauna Loa is a rainmaker through ortographic precipitation so thanks to the volcanoes there is freshwater as they force humid air up 🙂 .. thats how they get their freshwater
      Big Island summits are pushing up the trade winds

      On Equator there is No trade winds and there is ITCZ thunderstorms so probaly will be No dry side because of that If Hawaii was there

    • Defentivly alot warmer than the Canary Islands I been in both many times. Canaries in late summer is barely as warm as Hawaii is in winter ..

      Canaries are much more rugged and have a much drier climate and are much smaller being a much smaller magma supply source. And they clearly been colonized by fauna from the Mediterranean Africa

      In late winter Canaries is just barely passing the barrier as a ”summer place” and the nights can be cold

    • Moved to South Sweden permanently after long years with friends in North

      Better summer down here 20 to well over 20.. but not looking forward to the winter. Winters here are mild, wet and miserable I guess 2 c and 96% humidity and wind will feel like an Ice bath, Infact much worse than Laplands cold dry winters that was comfortable

  19. Climate change means that Greenland loses its glaciers soon. The glaciers push Greenland down (like Scandinavia during Ice Age) and the neighbourhood up (like Frisian coast of North Sea). If the glaciers of Greenland disappear, we should expect that Greenland will begin to rise and the neighbourhood will sink. This may also happen to Iceland. Iceland has glaciers, but small compared with Greenland’s ice mass. Without Greenland parts of Reykjanes might be below sea level.
    Today Scandinavia is still rising (on Swedish/Finish border 1cm/year) and the southern North Sea still sinking. This created the Wadden Sea and storm surge desasters of the Middle Age. That’s a reason why the Dutch had to learn the professional architecture of sea dykes.

  20. “Early this morning from 1:30 to 5:00 am HST, a small earthquake swarm of approximately 20 earthquakes occurred at a depth of 1-2 miles (2-3 km) below the surface, south of Halemaʻumaʻu crater. The swarm occurred in the same location as the swarm on August 16th and is likely caused by movement of magma in Kīlauea’s south caldera region, and is a process observed consistently at the summit. Over the past day Uēkahuna tiltmeter recorded a small inflationary tilt trend, likely associated with the end of the inflation (“I”) portion of a deflation-inflation (“DI”) event. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from the summit remain low; the most recent SO2 emission rate, of approximately 86 tonnes per day, was measured on August 15.”

    From HVO update today. The area of this swarm is where the SWRZ connector starts, and probably where the south caldera eruptions in the 1970s and 1982 started from. The next eruption will probably still be in the caldera but evidently magma is trying other paths, wont be long before somethings escapes the pit.

    • The swarm is also close to the cone that grew in June on the SW wall of the caldera. The next eruption can become a continuation of the past eruption further towards the Southwestern direction.

      • The update from today gives some more data, the deflation signal on the tiltmeter is only on that tiltmeter at UWEV, the one at Sand Hill down to the southwest, and right above the SWRZ connector, is inflating. So perhaps what looked like a DI and was described as such was magma breaking into the SWRZ during last weeks high pressure, so stopping an eruption in Halemaumau again. The SWRZ connector has vecome very dominant of the seismic activity this week, there are few quakes in the caldera but a lot around its southern edge.

        This is moving faster than I thought, the next eruption could be a SWRZ eruption, or a combined rift and summit eruption. The quakes are back up to the 100+ daily level but outside the caldera.

        • The eruption in September 1971 happened when Mauna Ulu had a weak period. It was supposedly a period when the inflow into ERZ was temporary weaker and shifted for a while towards the summit (and upper SWRZ). Since 2018 we’ve a period without significant magma inflo into ERZ. So we live in a longer period than 1971 with a weak ERZ. The summit and SWRZ have more time to evolve a eruption series. 1971 may teach us what we can expect.

          The beginning of the eruption in September 1971 reminded to June 2023: “The initial fissures broke out between Halema‘uma‘u and Kīlauea’s southwestern caldera wall, erupting lava fountains as high as 50 m (165 ft). Lava flows spread south and east, spilling into Halema‘uma‘u in a dramatic cascade that soon covered the crater floor.”
          It began like in June, but migrated towards the SWRZ.
          “Migrating at an average rate of 10 m (33 ft) per minute, erupting fissures extended nearly a kilometer (0.6 mi) down the SWRZ within a couple of hours.”
          The next day “lava fountains erupted 2.5 km (1.6 mi) farther down the SWRZ”. This trend of SWRZ migrating fissures continued on the 3rd day when eruptions occured near Mauna Iki (not to confused with Kilauea Iki) 12km SW of summit.

          • The vent at the southwest end of Halemaumau in June was not on a rift oriented fault, rather on a caldera fault, it just happened to be in the same place as 1971. The base dike probably would have gone further but it encountered this fualt and was diverted. So I would more expect something similar to occur next time if an eruption breaks out in the same place as the June eruption.

            But the comparison to 1971 or 1974 is not bad, the existence of a deep caldera now is an important difference but not one that is as important now as it was a few years ago and will be even less going forward with each eruption that is within Halemaumau. The next eruption could well be on the SWRZ or south of Halemaumau, if that happens then anything is fair game.

          • The 1971 and 1974 eruptions were chronologically close to Mauna Ulu, but happened when Mauna Ulu did a pause or had a weak phase. 1968 and 1973 also had small eruptions at or close to Hi’iaka crater on upper ERZ. Those small eruptions are easily forgotten due to the historically dominating ERZ eruptions of Mauna Ulu and Puu Oo. But it’s possible that during weak periods of ERZ small eruptions on the upper parts still occur.

          • I dont try to compare the activity today to what was happening in the 70s. The structure of the whole summit was very different, the caldera was filled to the brim abd with solid material so the ring faults were inactive. The magma system was probably more composed of sills and dikes that resisted collapse and was still forming after supply increased in the 50s. The 1960 eruption was comparable in intensity to 2018 and even lower in elevation, yet only drained a small part of Halemaumau that had been recently active before and didnt collapse the whole summit. Neither did the quake of 1975, which drained the summit of magma to such an extent there wasnt an eruption there for 7 years, similar magnitude quakes had caused major intrusions so this most likely did too. And then Pu’u O’o formed above where the quake slip was…

            While Pu’u O’o was active everything was able to merge into one huge chamber, so in 2018 all hell broke loose. Only about 20% drained in 2018 too, that mega chamber is still there, and the ring faults are now very active. Visually the activity will probably resemble the activity of the 70s but the cause us different. Now it is probably more analogous to Grimsvotn or even more so to the Galapagos calderas, which erupt from overpressure from the ring fault at high intensity. If an eruption happens in the SWRZ it will probably be a lot more intense than in 1971, and maybe much more voluminous too.

            Really nothing in the last century is very closely comparable to what is going on since 2018. Maybe 1924, but Kilauea was way less active back then too, so the response following that drain was certainly reduced. Even the post 1790 huge lava lakes of the early 19th century are different, because 1790 destroyed basically all the summit system, where only a small part was destroyed in 2018 and half of that has been recovered already.
            So right now is basically a bit of uncharted territory that trying to compare activity from before 2018 is best done only very loosely.

          • Based on the quakes happening right now we might get an answer very soon.

          • Yes, the structure of Kileauea’s Caldera changed a lot since the 1970s. We have to get used to different ways/styles of Kilauea’s eruptions.

            Today I noticed several new earthquakes to the west/northwest of Halema’uma’u towards the Highway. The earthquakes are located on a big “>”, of what the upper line goes towards the Highway and the lower line to SWRZ. The tip of the “>” is in Halema’uma’u.

          • That is the Namakanipaio area, which is part of the Kaoiki fault zone. It is maybe an older caldera rim from Kilauea but it is also a mobile zone between the flank of Mauna Loa and the SWRZ of Kilauea. I dont know why it seems to get so active nowdays but it happened in June too so not really indicative of where an eruption will occur.

            Its not an intrusion although it might show a previously unknown or newly formed or forming fault.

          • The present NW line of earthquakes points directly from Halema’uma’u towards the center of Mauna Loa’s summit caldera. The quakes there are around 1.5 miles (2.4 km) deep, so below sea level and probably in Mauna Loa’s pre-Kilauea structure. Are they related to the present extension of Kilauea’s summit? I’d suppose that this extension interacts with the underlying stable Mauna Loa.

            The SW line of earthquakes is more shallow and likely shows magma movement. Most of the quakes are outside of the Caldera and looks like we actually may get action on the SWRZ connector.

          • There are also quakes, mostly separated from those in the south caldera, happening under Kilauea Iki. One of these is even 10 km deep, seems like something is going on down there. Maybe not the most likely option but it would be quite a spectacle if there is an eruption there at the same time as a SWRZ eruption, unlike Halemaumau there may not necessarily be a complete hydraulic connection to the SWRZ, or anything else really.

  21. I’m new here, so if my post is in the wrong place, forgive me, please!

    I have question – do military explosions ever cause the lightning that is seen in volcano eruptions? That is said to be caused by friction between ash particles in the plume, and charge separation, a mechanism that surely can occur in an explosion. But watching the many such events from Ukraine I had never seen any lightning, until this one:

    The colours make me wonder if this is an artefact. Any views, please?

    *Admin – released from the spam bin of oblivion*

  22. Any chance for future volcanism in mainland Scandinavia? Jurassic is the last time and that was quite recently geologicaly. Norway also had during last 100 s of million years in form of alkaline rifting. Central Sweden had huge mafic intrusions during the late precambrian, but maybe the baltic craton is perhaps not fully cratonized yet. There is apparently lots of magma under Norway

    Woud placing the Hawaiian hotspot under the Baltic Sea work ?

  23. 2023 is the year of deep swarms of earthquakes under the summit of Mauna Loa.

    Each pulse of deep earthquakes has been stronger than the previous one, and each one has been related to an increase of inflation at Kilauea. Rates of tilting since July have at times at times been extreme, more than doubling other phases of strong inflation since 2018, and they have also been extraordinary when compared to decades of record. This month Kilauea has inflated a bit over 20 microradians in Uwekahuna, but given that we are probably inside a DI event, and if we correct for this, and even if we subtract the ~2 microradians from the intrusions, the inflation has been of 25 microradians in a month. Normal thing is 6 -10 microrad in a month.

    Each increase in inflation of Kilauea has shortly followed a deep swarm of Mauna Loa. This is best seen in the Uwekahuna tiltmeter, but the GPS stations also show it, comparison of Mauna Loa swarms with CRIM up component:

    • Thanks for your observations, Hector! Does this indicate a time of positive correlation between the two volcanoes? I have supposed that the next eruption (in 3-4 years) of Mauna Loa could be a summit eruption. Previous to this Mauna Loa would have to build something to sustain a long and steady eruption. Maybe this process also interacts with Kilauea somehow.

      • The earthquake swarms happen deep under Mauna Loa’s summit, but the inflation then happens at Kilauea’s summit. What I think is that surges are rising up the deep conduit of Mauna Loa, and then going sideways to Kilauea. There was a much more important deep earthquake swarm in 2005-2008, at the time both Mauna Loa and Kilauea experienced unusually fast inflation, this time it’s only Kilauea that seems to be reacting to it.

        • The last classical summit eruptions of Mauna Loa were 1940 (164 days) and 1949 (144 days). They were during Kilauea’s dormant period of the 1940s. Maybe Kilauea was too dormant to interact that time. Now Kilauea is in a different stage and may react more vital to Mauna Loa’s behaviour.

          Does Mauna Loa use different magma chambers for the long summit eruptions than for flank eruptions?

          • Flank eruptions sometimes seem to originate from subsidiary chambers, from the three collapse pits that form a chain down the SWRZ, and from the North Pit. 1950 probably started from one of the small pits south of the summit, this is because the path followed by the dike couldn’t possibly be reached from the central magma chamber, it’s too far south so must have originated from a subsidiary chamber offset from the central chamber’s dike path. This behaviour is similar to Kilauea, but Kilauea is much more complicated and horizontally extensive than Mauna Loa. Flank eruptions often start from the central chamber too, while summit eruptions always follow the same path, that of the central chamber. Although to be fair these path are likely not controlled by the position of the chamber but by that of the deep rift, and the chambers just develop in various places along this deep rift that also originate the dikes. So it’s more a thing of what section of the deep rift gives rise to the dike intrusion that in turn gives rise to the eruption.

  24. Coud Galapagos be the worlds 3 th most powerful magma source after Hawaii and Iceland?

    Its quite alot more prolific than Reuinion as a whole area

    • As an intraplate seamount province it’s clearly the third most productive.

    • Galapagos is unlike any other tropical volcano Island group with that very cold ocean current : ) most other tropical locales like Hawaii are watery deserts .. devoid of nutrients where nothing can grow in the clear blue watery desert

      But in Galapagos with a cold current it makes the ocean very much as fertile as Iceland almost .. not very tropical at all .. waters can be as cold as 16 c so ( almost Icelandic ) sea temperatures in late summer. Galapagos are so very cooled by the ocean that they are like an equatorial version of Melbourne near where Chad lives, an avarge day in Puerto Ayora is not much warmer than a summer day in UK

      Hawaii is indeed much much warmer than Galapagos despite it sits around 1500 miles north of equator, simply because they are in a warm ocean.

    • Galapagos woud be alot less biodiversity without the cold ocean current I woud guess

      Now I realise how cold Hawaii woud be at latitude 20 in the peru – current!
      Woud be as cool as the Azores perhaps cooler and Mauna Loa woud probaly be glaciated even in holocene

    • I mean, we can detect it too and dogs have a lot of touch sensors in their noses, so it really shouldnt be so surprising they are sensitive to heat and can form some sort of image out of it.

      Probabpy all of these so called ‘6th senses’ that other animals hace in some way are things we have too but are underutilised and thus untrained. Sensitivity to vibration could be as simple as the trend of wearing shoes, and that we are bipedal so have less capacity to determine direction. Magnetoreception we should have, we posess the cells that contain magnetite crystals that are always given as the reason migrating birds and sea turtles can find their way aroumd the planet, so we should have that sense too. This could be neutered by the vast number of powered lines we are surrounded by, which will make their own magnetic fields, and without exposure to the natural field of the earth at a young age we never calibrate it to be functional. And without moden tech an individual is not likely to move far enough to need planetary navigation I guess.
      Our eyes can see ultraviolet but our lense filters it out.
      We arent lacking in ability we are lacking in exposure to using them. Most of the superpowers animals have are just them being required to be at peak performance to survive, something few of our species have needed to do for millennia. Average Pleistocene humans, Sapiens or otherwise, would have been high performance endurance athletes as standard.

    • Humans dont have an 4 th UV cone like diurnal birds, so we cannot process UV light in same way as birds do..even If visible with lens hacking

    • Dogs have poor eyesight compared to humans, very poor .. much much less acuity and color, but they see much better in the dark and are better to see motion

      Homo Sapiens have one of the best eyesight of any animal, only large raptors does it better than us in terms of acuity, and they also have 4 working channels so see more color than us as it mixes in the brain into non spectral colors ( uv – blue/ uv – red / uv – green ) No idea what that combination woud look like

      Still Homo Sapiens have incredible eyesight compared to most other animals

  25. Saturation atmospheric diving chamber
    I can just imagine what breathing and living in up to 30 atmospheres or more must be like! a perfectly controlled mix too. The record depth for souch a living chamber is 60 atmospheres at 600 m depth

    I have 1 atmosphere in my living room, and some deep sea workers work and live and sleep in 20 atmospheres or more, What woud walking around in 25 to 30 atmospheres feel like ? It must be like a soup! No idea But must feel very strange for the skin. Beyond 60 atmospheres the air gets so dense they say its hard to breathe it you have to swallow it

    This is so strange and fascinating that woud be fun to experience a day in 35 atmospheres of pressure woud a paper clip take ages To float to the floor ? 🙂

  26. A PhD thesis has been recently submitted, which aims to re-establish Y5 of Taupo as a single eruptive unit. This re-establishment would set the eruptive column height at ≥50 km, at least based on the maximum clasts method.

    Theoretical calculations suggest an upper limit for an ideal Plinian plume at 48-55 km. However, the crucial aspect of proposing the ultraplinian classification is the existence of field evidence showcasing plume heights approaching the theoretical limits of ideal plumes. Y5 stands as the solitary example (with Mazama upper pumice being a less recognized case). In 2014, the division of Y5 into 26 subunits invalidated the previously calculated height, consequently raising doubts about the applicability of the ultraplinian classification.

    There are arguments indicating that the maximum clasts method might no longer be relevant at such extreme heights. The occurrence of ultraplinian eruptions could be exceptionally rare or potentially implausible altogether, but this new study brings back the possibility.

  27. Hello there. Sorry for the dormancy, I have been working on a project for a bit, but I am curious if it is possible that oceanic crust could move at a rate of more than 30 CENTIMETERS a year?

    • You also makes the wonderful maps right ? I dont think thats possible now

      But perhaps where during rapid seafloor spreading at Meozoic but only during short times

      • More like a map of my own. Not really an article, but I’ll give you a bit of a picture of what it looks like today: a massive supercontinent (perhaps consisting of 1/3 of the surface area of the Earth-sized planet) with oceanic island arcs and rifting micocontinents (similar to Zealandia) along its western coast and a near continuous band of Andean mountains on the east coast, with a few more eroding mountain ranges that have formed due to the collisions that formed said supercontinent.
        To the north, a continent has rifted (to form a sea), with the widest at the west side and the hinge connected by volcanism to the west. East African-type rifting is occurring through the middle of the supercontinent (with the chances of a flood basalt high) and 3 oceanic plates under the ocean.

      • Any more fictional hotspot Islands comming for Earth ?

        Can you make what Galapagos looked like at its Peak strenght in cretaceous when it erupted low temperatures Komatites

        You are very good at this stuff, and the future Big Island maps where fabulous! 🙂

        • Oh, many of them, including a few within the continent. I am thinking about crashing a oceanic plateau into the western arc (in a similar manner to the Caribbean/Ontong-Java Plateau now)(because I can 😀).

        • As for the Galapagoes komatiite ting, I could make that happen, now that you mentioned it, although this 30 cm/yr thing has been going on for 25 million years on two plates, with the third being slower (I.e about 1/2 the speed). As for the other hotspots outside the ridges, the two plates are perhaps moving so fast that the majority of them would not even form an island (even something as powerful as Hawaii would only make a few small islands), although this smaller one is a good candidate to form something close to Hawaii.

          • Okay, about the Galapagos komatiite sort of thing, I have picked an area in my world where one side is going at 31 cm/yr (to the SE) and the other at 18 cm/yr on the other (to the NW). Considering that this will be a hotspot intersecting with a mid-ocean ridge, which the mid-ocean ridge will be traveling to the SE at 13 cm/yr, so assuming that meting “radius” of the hotspot is 30 km, it would start inter-mixing at around a very young 231,000 years, it is quite likely to be short lived. If we go down to the slower spreading areas (this one goes at a remarkable 49 cm/yr), it’ll last longer, but I am thinking about this for the sakes.

            With this, on the faster side, in 1 decade (10 years), it would’ve moved by 3.5 meters, 35 meters in a century (100 years) and so forth until it would be 310 km in a million years (with the same mathematics for the other side but slower). Speaking of hotspots under ridges, the crust there is thin enough to produce komatiites, although under normal circumstances it would be making hot basalt (due to the hotspot adding more heat and the decompression factor makes it easier to produce). Due to the spreading rate, any volcanic system that would try to establish there would die out quickly, but at least it would form islands (with the help of the hotspot’s uplift), but the area would look more like a really big and detached Reykjanes Peninsula, as this one would have no central volcanoes but rather a series of monogenetic. Any older volcanoes that are still active would produce more silica rich magma. I only could imagine the vegetation on there as they would have to adapt to the magnesium-rich soil.

            I could imagine fluid komatiite volcanism plowing though the land while monogenetic shields and the rare cinder cone would pockmark the landscape and massive and lengthy lava tubes lay underground.

            It is quite fascinating when you think about it.

      • What about making a
        Super Earth exoplanet continent map ( a larger planet will have a hotter interior and much more geological activity )

        But thats already excellently been done with Planet Lyr at Planetocopia site by Chris Wayan

        Still your maps are awsome

        • I was actually thinking about adding 2 super-earths (with this “Earth” stuck between), along with a super-Jupiter and a super-Neptune outside of this system.

        • Lyr is probaly an excellent imagination what a Super Earth coud be like .. with huge oceans ( deeper than Earths ) and small hyperactive continetal fragments and numerous hotspots Islands

          And a denser atmosphere than Earth and because of that dense air mild worldwide climate conditions without any icecaps, souch a planet coud be more habitable than Earth even.

          Souch also orbits smaller stars that lives longer than the sun

      • Galapagos benefits alot from
        The cold seacurrents, that makes it marine life very rich indeed, most other tropical deep sea Islands are clear blue watery deserts like Hawaii is. Galapagos is much more like Alaska in marine biology than any Equatorial Island

        If Galapagos was placed just 650 km north it woud be in the warm Panama Current and then the fur seals, sea lions, albatrosses and pengiuns woud not be able to live there anymore and starve in the warm waters

    • Try to make a map of what woud happen If Hawaii Hotspot was in the Atlantic ocean in some of its deep sea plains.. its 10 times slower the plate movement so Big Island woud probaly be 10 times bigger than in pacific ocean 🙂 a real Olympus Mons in a little bit

      • This woud be fun to see an alternative Hawaii in Atlantic ocean and beacuse of the slow seafloor it woud be BIG indeed …

      • Zach Trent do that one .. woud become very huge indeed! and maui woud not be above surface as it woud Be eroded away on souch slow seafloor

  28. The 2020 american west coast wildfires is the most insane and scary thing I ever seen! wildfires smoke covering over 1000s km cities like san fransisco and los angeles where choked with dark orange smoke turning day into an orange evening all along the west coast. This is how nuclear war haves to look like, stuff of doom


    • This makes me question If a global thermonuclear war woud really cause an impact winter, as much smoke there where in 2020. Thats hotly debated and indeed modern cities are mostly incombustible steel and concrete .. No Hiroshima wood there so a firestorm in a nuked New York woud probaly not be the case at all.

      Still the nuclear explosions woud loft particles high up in the stratosphere up to 45 km so a nulcear winter perhaps still woud happen even If modern steel and glass cities generaly are not prone to firestorms as older WW2 wood cities where

  29. Because there was talk of dinosaurs and etc earlier, I thought I would put this here.

    If God is real then the Triassic is when he decided to do a factory reset and let the game run itself to see what happens, before realising things were getting out of hand and needing to hard reset everything again before it was too late.
    Truely a great shame that this period is so poorly knwon compared to the rest of the Mesozoic, it is by far the most diverse assembly of life that the Earth has ever had at least on land. If the next season of Prehistoric Planet is set in the Triassic I can die a happy nerd 🙂

    • For me Triassic deserves at least 5 seasons, each at a different time. With all its diversity, the Triassic is greatly underrated.

      • Well, yes that is very true, and even that would probably still not do it justice. But I think it would be too intimidating a task to take on if proposed all at once.

        Really the paleontology world needs a person who is both Elon Musk and David Attenborough, someone with deep understanding and knowledge of the field and who also has such deep pockets they would just do it for the hell of it regardless of financial gains.

  30. ?p=2811

    Fun map with Australia showing its weather analouges in other parts of the world. West Europe is most analougus to Tasmania althrough our ocean Gulf Stream is even warmer and we have a Sahara and Russia influense in summer while Tasmania does not

    In the future with warming oceans and more atmospheric humidity I guess Australia will competely loose its deserts, in earlier warmer times in Paleocene, Eocene and all way until Miocene Australia used to be competely covered by tropical rainforests, so deserts are in reality a thing of cooler drier times ( reverse of the old dogma that warmer climate causes more deserts when they do not! ) Australias deserts where largest during the dry Ice Ages.

    Australias future will be more humid and probaly even more unfriendly for human life with higher wet bulps, have there been any increase in rainfall in Australia? But I guess there will be a desert there as long as the Antartica Icesheet exists thats probaly why Earth have deserts now


    • The cool US west coast is probaly most analougus to tasmania as this map suggest.

      There even been volcanism in Tasmania before and there are plugs and Intrusions preserved

    • I always did notice how weirdly familiar southern Chile looked and now I know why 🙂

      Also, seeing the areas compared to the UK makes me now realise why the weather there is described as total chaos lol

    • UK and Western Europe including Scandinavia are all amazingly mild for being above latitude 50 and going all way up into Arctic .. but Thats the Gulf Stream influense. South UK almost borders on Oceanic Subtropical so is very similar to South New Zealand.

      Even where I live now Trachycarpus is perhaps viable to have in garden. Still winters are absolutey miserabley gloomy with rain and short days and probaly explains the high suicidal rates in South Scandinavia

      I almost prefers the cold dry sunny bright winters up at relatives in Northen Scandinavia 🙂 but I moved south

      Sadely No volcanoes here so looking for work skill usable in Iceland

    • Europe have it mildness all way up to Narvik in the Arctic, at least If you follow the Norway coast .. basicaly temperate all way into Antartica interior If this was the south pole 🙂

    • South New Zealand is almost identical to Norway : ) minus the subduction and transform fault, but landscapes are very similar with glacialy eroded peaks and fantastic fjords and coastal rainforests … Norway is somewhat colder .. but not very much in the South part .. both have incredible scenery althrough South NZ maybe able to exceed Norway as its even more rugged due to Mountains are still growing

    • Looking at Tasmania coasts in Google Earth the water is very very very clear in many areas, looks almost tropical at least looks like the Mediterranean.. despite being a temperate ocean is Tasmania low in nutrients?

      I not seen any other ( temperate ocean ) that is this blue .. But reading 14 c in late winter then Tasmania maybe a subtropical ocean anyway 🙂 and those are typicaly low in nutrients as well,145.5609768,13z/data=!3m1!1e3

  31. Some pretty good videos specialy the lower ones explains how western diet and refined sugars drive alzheimers, through sugar glyciation. Our brains works much better on fat ketones like hunter gatheres does

    These diseases where quite unknown before sugar and Refined crabohydrates consumption skyrocketed in the 1900 s

    The problems with most doctors is that they dont know .. they are guys with papers

    videos removed. VC is not a site to promote unproven diets – admin

    • VC is happy to allow discussions but please don’t push videos that promote unproven health-related actions. It is covered in item 3 of our very limited set of rules: don’t post commercial adverts or inappropriate links.

    • Well its well proven that Refined sugars are toxic to the brain .. it runns much better on fats

      Well I dont know the rules at all

      Trying Pleistocene to fix a severely injured foot But we will see, I likley damaged the nerves so probaly wont heal that much more

    • Well Human Pleistocene diet to get better blood sugar controll and controll over inflammation that refined sugar and ”refined carbs” cause

      Souch diets cause less blood sugar swings and keeps it more stable

      I do moose meat, onions, fish and raw carrots and olives and feels full and happy on it and needs to eat less

      But the foot is badely injured althrough it eases inflammation

      • Sugar do drive heart disease by inflammation, I myself have gotten some amazing colesterol values by qutting sugar and refined carbs

        nut its diffcult to not eat cakes and french fries absoutley, the salt and processed seed oils are as addictive as drugs

        • but its diffcult to not eat cakes and french fries absoutley,for correction and I do have a sweet tooth althrough trying to resist

      • What I have done is to skip refined sugars, refined crabohydrates replacing them with natural foods and natural very slow crabohydrates like greens and some tubers, I also eat alot of natural fats

        Both me and fathers colesterol levels and blood sugars have improved alot by skipping refined sugars and refined crabohydrates, glucose cause inflammation in the arteries when they exceed a certain biological limit and that cause colestrols to stick to inflamed oxygenated glyciated artery walls causing them to narrow over the years with chronic inflammation, Thats how sugar kills your heart

        Sugar inflammation is the cause of heart disease not saturated fats. Our bodies works very well on Ketosis / Low Carb

        Many natural tribes and pepoles in isolated areas eat alot of natural fats and natural foods, and they praticaly never gets heart disease in old age, our whole bodies are made from saturated fatty acids and colestrols and use that in our life chemistry .. that it woud be dangerous is an old 1960 s dogma .. based on flawed science..

      • Eats mostly moose, reindeer meat, olives, raw carrots and fish and onions now

        The impact on health is fabulous so quite close to a Pleistocene diet, gives better blood sugar controll and less chronic inflammation

    • Jesper honey (the British called us that all the time – now I am infected):

      Do not talk about your father online. If your father wants us to know what he eats or likes he will tell us himself.

      If my kids did that I wouldn’t see them for a while.

      With kind regards, a parent and fellow doctor. And use some ointment with heparine for your foot. Ask your father.

      • Well 🙂 his health have improved alot too .. skipping the processed stuff .. and he is happy that I woke him up on that part

        Still I Myself finds it very difficult to not eat junk food sadely its all salt and processed oils that makes it

    • And thats correct, the food guidelines are so have here in the west world are immensely flawed and been that for a very long time. Here is some articles proofing that. Its way too based on only refined crabohydrates and sugars, ending being a very high glycemic index, that will cause health problem due to unhealthy blood sugar spikes. The traditional 1900 s food guidelines in the west are based, where based on refined crabohydrates and thats where the problem is. It went very wrong when coperate billionare industry intrests where allowed to regulate these guidelines rather than acuall sicence.
      Still its good in recent years that the food guidelines have began to change.

      Neither sugar or refined crabohydrates does exist in the wild nature, our bodies dont process them well, we are evolved to eat whole foods and works very well on fats. And thats where the traditional food pyramid falls short.

      Both me and my father grew up with these flawed guidelines and the more carbs we ate, the worse our blood sugars and values got and the more weight we gained.

      Some time ago, me and my father both skipped the standard american diet, for a Pleistocene Diet full of natural fats and low carb greens and local wild meat, and the results on the blood and weight are amazing… so I think its pretty good solid edivence as well.

      Sugar inflammation and glyciation is the cause of heart disease and alzheimers.. not healthy saturated fats

      • So some good links that explains how wrong the food guidelines is today in the west world

        We are too focused on the old dogma that ”fat is bad” But You do NOT get heart disease from saturated fats thats are the biologicaly most important human nutrient and thats acually the truth.

        Sugar and Refined crabohydrates is the cause of heart disease through vascular inflammation and glyciation….but sadely most doctors they dont know… beacuse they been told wrong theory that the market been driving for decades.

        The food guidelines today is based on flawed knowledge and greedy economic intrests. I skipped ”american diet” long ago that was only refined crabohydrates and result is good weight and better blood values …

      • So pretty good videos that explains the flaws of the traditional food guidelines in the west world, the guidelines have become little better since after 2010 .. But not very much

        Many But not all doctors, they dont know .. blinded by the market guidelines, they say what the market say in terms of the food guidelines. its mostly crabohydrates and processed foods or strange processed products rather than ”real natural unprocessed foods” thats mainstream today. And it been so since the 1950 s in the west and its getting worse now with New technology. No other countries eat as much sugar and processed foods as we do in the west world..and explains why we are the sickest too.

        The main processed food industries also founds flawed sicence thats these huge companies subventionate, The market only wants us to eat junk food so they trys to sell their processed cornflakes products. The only thing I learnt in high school is that we should eat mostly bread and pasta … nothing else .. thats what they usualy say😑 So market capitalism is awful in souch terms when they regulate souch stuff.

        My father have addmitted he was wrong in what was proper human diet, he been so poorly informed that he have never been able to buy good foods even. Thanks to my guidelines we both have gotten some amazing body health : ) and he lost alot of weight and feels awsome.
        For the first time since childhood I also Myself have a normal insulin when I skipped western diet. Processed food products does not exist in the wild that we humans left only 10 000 years ago. I reversed his prediabetes by changing to a ancestral diet.

        You do NOT get heart disease from meat and saturated fats, our whole bodies are made from
        that and are crucial for our body chemistry, Infact saturated animal fats where probaly the key element in human evolution and why we got out large brains and body physology. Human body runns very well on fat ketones. Most natural tribes eat mostly that, and none gets heart disease or dementia in old age, souch diseases dont exist in souch groups. Modern research really shows No connection between heart disease and natural fats.

        The outdated guidelines on saturated fats are still in the 1970 s and really needs to be updated and changed now as its not the cause of heart disease

        Heart disease and alzheimers and clogged arteries are caused by sugar inflammation and sugar glyciation, thats been proven in many papers, refined sugar damages arteries by chemical glyciation and oxygen rich reactive species. In the west world the rates of these diseases is highest where we eat most sugar and Refined crabohydrates

  32. ?itok=xkFxdlJT

    If they pops up, these are probaly the best cgi renderings ever what the Galileo Atmospheric Probe experienced as it sank into Jupiters atmosphere. The atmosphere probe carried no camera so we will never know what it looked like

    But I guess these are quite accurate so fairly similar to Earths upper atmosphere, the clouds of Jupiter are covered by a transparent hydrogen stratosphere that causes Rayleigh scattering as on Earth, with some thin haze and no large particles. So between 1 and 0.1 Earth pressure atmosphere (pressure decreases exponentially with altitude) you will see see blue/dark blue sky with high-altitude translucent clouds and haze. The sky color depends on altitude, in some close orbital photos of Jupiter you can see the Blue rayleigh scattering along the planets limb.

    The probe itself fell into a cloud free area so called ”atmospheric hotspot” where it was very dry a downdraft, so dectected very little cloud particles. There visibility woud be limited by rayleigh scattering alone, ever denser gas below woud form a dark abyss and a distant fuzzy horizon and less dense above your head woud form the blue skies above. The probe was crushed at 22 Earth atmospheres so perhaps deep enough for the blue dayskies to turn red, it failed at temperatures of 150 c

    Jupiter is an insanely alien enviroment, at first so similar to Earths atmosphere in apparence from inside, yet it keeps ever going down without a solid ground until it turns smoothly into a very hot liquid

    • Woud be fun with an aircraft probe as well in Jupiters atmosphere, well hydrogen air is very ligth so will be hard to fly above the clouds at above one Earth atmospheric pressure that woud be only 1/14 th of Earths density at same air pressure I think

      And flying at Jupiters tropospause at 0,1 bar woud be like trying flying at 40 km altitude on Earth, which needs insane speeds.

      Once you go further down in Jupiter the air pressure increase and flying getting lift gets much easier, at 20 bars its about same density as Earths sealevel, but there it woud be below 3 layers of clouds and perhaps woud be almost pitch black and rain failing into the abyss and its also getting hotter the further down you go. Go down far enough 1000 s of km below the clouds and you maybe able to swim but there temperatures are in the many 1000 s of degrees c, Jupiter is one big hell – pit really a terrfying bottomless gas abyss

      The atmosphere entry is terrible too before your probe can even leave the areoshell

    • Woud be a dream If they had a camera on that atmospheric probe, althrough woud be hard with late 1980 s technology and we woud only get one imagine with low gain antenna on Galileo

      And these two cgi renderings above are probaly accurate in terms what it woud look like, the probe hit a dry spot so there where No clouds at all

    • Jupiters poles are beautyful! ”Liquid Marble” and you can even see cloud shadows too from Cumulunimbus towers

      I wonder what the blue is and I think its Raylienght scattering the stuff that makes skies on Earth blue as well, so they are clouds that sit deeper under more atmosphere making them blue

    • The carbon phenolic heatshield woud be the last to be destroyed, after it popped away after the entry, it can surivive up to 4 815 degrees C, so probaly was able to sink a few 1000 km into Jupiter where the air is white hot, it woud melt first and later the droplets vaporize … later mixning with the planets fluid hot interior with the rest of the probe

      • A human woud likley turn to diamond and it later melt and then be vaporized, but its possible that temperatures in Jupiters increase fast enough with depth that You are vaporized before you becomes a diamond

        Jupiter is one big death pit and thats one reason of the fascination with it

        If you had a huge solar celled hot – pure hydrogen Zeppelin it woud be possible to float in the cloud layers that woud be an Impressive sight

  33. Possible piece of puzzle why the big ones might have succumbed and the small mammals survived. Mercury poisoning would add to it. Today mercury is more enriched in the muscles of big fishes like tuna and swordfish.

    I hope I am still alive when the Jupiter Icy Moons Explorer orbits Ganymede (starting in 2031).

    Wondering whether mankind will one day think about abducting Ganymede. Jupiter – the God – has done the same thing, so morally no big deal. The problem is more whether it would be possible.

  34. One story helps me more than others to know deep inside that in the most terrible times with the most terrible monsters there are always a few angels.

    One of them was Professor Otto Hahn.
    1. When Vienna-born physicist Lise Meitner (Jewish) lost her job in 1933 he employed her in his lab and paid her himself. After that, when Germany annexed Austria in 1938, she was in danger. He and Dutch colleague Dirk Coster, Leiden, helped her to get out of the country via The Netherlands and Denmark to Sweden where she survived.
    2. After the war with Germany was finished Hahn was brought to Farm Hall near Cambridge, England (Operation Alsos III), where he heard of the atomic bomb on Hiroshima and later Nagasaki. He who had discovered the possibility of fission broke down. Werner Heisenberg wrote that everybody thought he might commit suicide. He felt responsable for the death and the suffering of hundreds of thousands.

    This is not in detail in the English wikipedia. I think it is important though. People have to know that there is a possibility to be different and, above all, to have a heart.

  35. GVP classifies the recent eruption of Kilauea as Episode 3 of the eruption that began in September 2021. Is this correct? Should we label the events since 2021 as three episodes or as three different eruptions?

    • I think technically eruptions are considered ongoing if it stops and restarts less than 3 months later at the same location, I think properly it is 90 days. So this past eruption would fit that, but the eruption in June which was more than 3 months after, that would be the start of a new eruption, with the last eruption being a second part of that. The eruption in January would be part of the eruption that began in September 2021 though.

      But, it is also complicated by having each eruption since 2020 be from a distinct intrusion. Technically every separate intrusion should be a new eruption, even if it happens from a volcano that was already erupting somewhere else, its just that not many volcanoes can actually build pressure while already erupting somewhere like Kilauea can. Pu’u O’o was erupting from 1983 to 2018, but the eruptions in 1997, 2007 and 2011, as well as 2018 and the lava lake in halemaumau after 2008 up to 2018, all of those are probably better considered as separate eruptions from Pu’u O’o even though they all happened in the same time period. I think really the definitions are a little arbitrary

    • That’s just semantics, with no rigid consensus on the exact meaning. The Piton de la Fournaise Observatory would consider it a different eruption. It’s an effusion from a new conduit, completing a pressure build-up and release cycle.

  36. Global positioning at Kilauea measures a continuing medium-term inflation that’s only shortly interrupted by the eruptive episodes in June and September:

    That indicates, that something bigger than the last eruption is building up.

    • Thats right Kilauea is an absoulte monster .. something really Big is building up now with souch insane magma supply rates

  37. Was re-reading the wiki entry for the Campanian Ignimbrite, and it mentions (with source) that recently it was discovered both Campi Flegrei and Vesuvius share a magma chamber at about 10km depth?? That seems pretty huge if accurate, and I’ve never heard that discussed before.

    • I’m a bit skeptic personally. The chemistry is hugely different.

      • Thanks for weighing in Hector; that seems like an extraordinary claim that would have extraordinary implications. So the skepticism seems well founded.


    • Thanks, Jesper. That’s beautiful. Marquesas Ua Pou is definitely the best. Porcupine phonolite plugs island. Not so long ago (just a little over 1 million years back) there were so many powerful shield volcanoes erupting across Polynesia, in the Marquesas, Samoa, and Tahiti. Now they are barely alive. At least they left a beautiful legacy behind.

    • very dreamy indeed and the 1600 s explorers tought they arrived in ” biblical paradise” as a result of that scenery…at least so was the reaction for the first western sailers from the highly then religious europe


    A way to sample Io s volcanoes in a proposed mission. Flying very low over Pele Patera woud yeild best sample return results I woud get with both mafic sillicate dust and sulfur materials collected from its plume and a chance to photograph the lava lake in detail

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