The VC Bar

Welcome to the Volcano Café bar, a place for all things on or off topic and inane ramblings. There has been a need of late to find a place better suited to various theories, long comments and enthusiasm. This page will be less moderated than the main article pages and cleared out every month (this may change depending on use).

Have fun and don’t forget to tip the barman 😉

2,846 thoughts on “The VC Bar

  1. Earthquake swarm in Hawaii, Ka’oiki fault zone, next to Kilauea. Tectonic as far as I can tell but being so close you never know. All about the same depth as Kilaueas magma chamber too, I wonder how the faults all connect there, or if this area is technically part of Kilaueas southwest rift just not recently active?

      • There are 2 tremors in the seismograms, but these come from the deep conduit southeast of Pahala, the first tremor has 2 automatic locations:

        M 2.4 – 7 km ESE of Pāhala, Hawaii
        2020-10-23 08:38:57 (UTC)19.188°N 155.411°W 52.2 km depth

        M 2.4 – 10 km SE of Pāhala, Hawaii
        2020-10-23 08:35:29 (UTC)19.131°N 155.421°W 41.1 km depth

  2. What if you fell into gas giant Jupiter?
    The reality is very disturbing! under Jupiters clouds is a dark bottomless pit with ever increasing pressure and temperatures. Quite a ride into Jupiters boiling interior. Jupiters deep interior is hot liquid hydrogen. I wonder what depth the atmosphere starts to glow red. And perhaps there are sillicate clouds in Jupiters hotter depths?
    You fall and fall until you are crushed into this pit. Galileo Atmospheric probe carried No camera sadely, so we never knows what it see during that afternoon it fell into Jupiter.

    Jupiters clouds upclose probaly are very similar to earths, when you fly an aircraft here. Cumulus clouds are common on Jupiter. But these CB goes up 70 kilometers on Jupiter and huge storm anvils. Mammatus evening skies are probaly spectacular on Jupiter.
    The air between the cloud decks are probaly quite clear.

    Jupiters cloud free dry zones
    (”hotspot”)are probaly a clear blue dayskies over a dark hazy pit, but perhaps similar looking as when you earths shadow from above when you sit in an aircraft and looking into the approaching evening night darkness

    Links here

    • A very strange world
      Jupiter haves rainfall, but the rain falls into the bottomless abyss. Rain and hailstones falling into the pit, where they evaporate in the hot depths and rise up to become clouds again in an endless cycle.

    • Nothing else stranger than than these gas giant planets. There is no boundary to run into, no solid surface. Just a crushing hot abyss under the clouds.
      Far below Jupiters clouds, the pressure makes the atmosphere into a very hot liquid hydrogen sea. Temperatures and pressures gets to the point so the atoms falls apart. Almost like the interior of a star. Deep inside Jupiter the liquid hydrogen becomes metallic liquid hydrogen under immense pressures and heat.

    • It absoutley sucks that a camera was not included on the Galileo Atmospheric probe
      Something that was possible even back then with late 1980 s technology.

      We will never know what it saw
      But it was a relatively clear region it went down in.
      So yes really a bottomless pit

      • IIRC, issues were mass, power and band-width. Radiation hardening was mentioned, too. Now that even shoe-box cube-sats often carry a suite of web-cams in addition to ‘proper’ optics, ’tis just a matter of getting probe to Jupiter within decade of launch…

        Speaking of missed opportunities, remember the Giotto probe skimming Halley’s Comet ? IIRC, the design team went for active re-alignment should minor impacts knock the probe skew. But, the ‘debris field’ was much, much bigger and denser than anticipated, such the active system could not keep up. Had they fitted a less powerful active system plus a passive, tri-axial dampers set, literally big ball-bearings in oil-filled tubes, they’d have gleaned much more data…

          • Sealed tubes, suitable silicone oil. There’s several commercial brands with pour-points down to -100ºC ( circa 170 K) for cryo-circulators, and custom aerospace varieties have been used in satellites’ passive dampers etc since 1960s….

            Nice feature of such widgets is being completely sealed units with just a couple of mounting lugs. In fact, IIRC, tubular types may form part of the load-bearing frame, reducing mass & volume budgets…

            And, yes, I, too did a ‘Huh ??’ when I first heard of such…

          • -100 C is not low enough for deep space. Remember that at the distance of Jupiter, the solar heating is 25 times less than in earth orbit. Craft cruising in deep space when hibernating go colder than that. Reading some documents, radiation damage and outgassing is also a problem. But it is used in the ISS cooling system which I did not know.

  3. Since volcanoes are stuck in limbo, Let’s play a game…
    It’s called guess the volcano.
    You know my shadow but you don’t know me
    You know my wrath but you don’t see me
    From a neglected period I exploded.
    Who am I?

  4. Feels like Grimsvötn is going to erupt at anytime now! magmatic inflation is the highest .. possible higher since 1870 s big event.

    • Are you referring to anything (a plot or announcement) in particular?

      Earthquake activity has bee low in recent months. In the 2011 eruption, it took a minimum of 5 months to get from the present level of unrest to the eruption. Of course nothing repeats exactly, and a jokulhaup now could have consequences.

    • IMO reported large gas releases and inflation that breaks previous 2011 s levels 🤷‍♂️They told that months ago.
      The sulfur output they described as ”very large”

      • ok! Not much has happened since though. Everything points at an eruption coming. But nothing points at it being imminent, I think.

    • The very large sulfur release and rapidly increasing geothermal activity at south caldera rim, is a sign that magma is very very shallow in Grimsvötn now. The shallow magma chamber in Grimsvötn is only 1600 meters below the caldera floor. The large sulfur emissions are signs that magma maybe only a few 100 meters down now, as sulfur bubbles out shallow.

      Its my 25 Birthday in 2 days
      So I wants Iceland to produce something larger than
      Siberian Traps for me it must be done: It MUST happen,
      if not I will fly. As addicted to volcanoes as I am.. someday there MAYBE be a traps for me. At least a Birthday candle will grow out in Grimsvötn.
      Aaaa cannot wait to see something MUCH larger than Holuhraun : ) Im so addicted.

      Just kidding with wanting to flood the world with magma

      • ALWAYS be careful of what you wish for. There is usually a nonzero probability that you may get it.

      • If it is that shallow I think it would have erupted already, the magma is probably still where it always was but theres greater heat and more water to allow transfer of SO2 through hydrothermal means, like at Miyakejima after its collapse in a sense.
        You in the past have compared this to opening of the overlook crater, remember that was while Pu’u O’o was erupting, there was already a hole so it was opened passively at low or nonexistent pressure, it was basically a non-eruptive process that carried a vent with it. Summit eruptions at Kilauea normally are pretty much immediate, 1952 puts Heklas famous silence to shame being that even HVO didnt know it was happening until a 500 meter fountain of lava erupted out of halemaumau in the middle of the night… Grimsvotn is like that now, it as no side vent, it is highly pressurised, its next eruption regardless of the long term will begin strong, and most shields begin as flood basalt eruptions anyway 🙂

      • Grimsvötn does have a very large sulfur output, one of the largest thats ever been seen for any sleeping volcano according to IMO. The sulfur content in Grimsvötns magmas maybe as high as Kilaueas. The magma is very shallow, knowing that lake drainage and removal of water pressure can spawn eruptions. Caldera outcrops been extremely hot, but coud just be circulating fluids and gases. The shallow magma body is minimum 1600 meters down.
        The most shallow magma body in Iceland. The CSM plot is much less steep now, it coud because the system is heated and produces less earthquakes now. The inflation have exceeded 2011 s levels now. More investigations needs to be done on Grimsvötn caldera.

      • Grimsvötn does kind of look like a Halemaumau a bit, a nested basalt caldera, with high magma influx as high sulfur content. But the Grimsvötn eruptions mostly becomes basaltic tephra and ash, and never really add to caldera fillings. The Galapagos calderas with rootless lakes and violent ring fault eruptions maybe an ice free analouge to Grimsvötn.
        The current magma body its under svianukur. The knowledge of the structure of Grimsvötns chambers have not been studied in extensive detail. The 2011 magma was very primitve a recharge from the mantle plume they say.
        Here is the tephra island left after 2004 s eruption

  5. Introducing Sub – Antartic Penguins to Iceland?

    King pengiuns and macaroni pengiuns will thrive in Icelands cool mild subpolar oceanic climate, with very plentiful Atlantic of fishing. King Pengiuns will love Icelands cool mild oceanic climate. They coud form huge colonies along Icelands coasts.

    Penguins the ( more northen
    Sub – Antartic variants ) will thrive in Iceland: I wants a colony of them in Westman Islands as well as westfjords.
    They coud thrive in Iceland, thats very much like Falklands Islands and South Georgia in climate.

    But introducing King pengiuns to Iceland is a very bad idea? : )

    • Interesting idea! But why would you want to do such? You think Iceland is too empty? 😄

      Just let nature do her thing and all will be right!
      (Except for us Homo stultus maybe…)

    • King Penguins woud absolutley thrive in Iceland, with similar climate as South Georgia.
      They coud form large colonies in the North Atlantic and Iceland as well. An introduction is for boasting the tourism and biology in Iceland, and as well as having a replacement for the flightless auks. King Pengiun woud be the ideal penguin to introduce in Iceland!. A silly project but perhaps fun indeed. Only a few 1000 s needs to be shipped to westman Islands to establish a population in Iceland. This is a very intresting biological project for Iceland that I came up with : )

    • Faroe Islands are also a great spot to introduce them, with similar climate and rich ocean biology.
      King Penguins are sub – polar penguins so they do well in cold temperate oceans.

    • That woud work well indeed. but they are also an alien species in northen hemisphere.
      Your penguins woud compete with seals and other marine life for fish and squid, forming a similar ecological system as sourthen ocean. Land predators may pose a threat to nesting sites, but I guess they woud find safe outcrops. I agree, a fun plan to enrich Icelands rather sparse fauna.
      Cheers … from your brother

    • Jan Mayen will become a gigantic King Pengiun mass breeding site. if your fun plan is set into action. They woud thrive there no doubt and there is no polar bears there, because of the Gulf Stream

      • I’d rather much see the great auk resurrected rather than put penguins in island colonies across the North Atlantic. Great auks could also potentially thrive in the Aleutians/SW Alaska west and SW of Anchorage and the Russian Far East/Kuriles, although they weren’t native to the north Pacific, IIRC.

      • He haves souch crazy ideas! but my brother does love pengiuns.
        He is going mad.. becomming something like a
        ”Saurman of the Penguins” in other words.. Jesper is really funny

      • Sure about the no polar bears? Beerenberg translates as ‘Bear Mountain’ and these old Dutch whalers were an unimaginative bunch

    • If your plan is a sucess, their range will spann Iceland, Norway, Northen Ireland, Scotland, Eastern Canada and Greenland.

    • Peguin farms! 😄
      A new super chicken! 🤩
      They do not need much space … 🐧🐧🐧🐧🐧🐧🐧🐧🐧🐧🐧🐧🐧🐧
      Large eggs, ehrm, but only one a year I expect…🥚🍳🍗


      • ”They are not for eating!!! ”The pengiuns go to Iceland, alive and unspoiled!!

        Get the Iceland pengiun invasion going!!

        • The birds in that niche were probably the Great Auk. Iceland against the Auk turned out a bit one-sided. Humans are after all the top predator here, and they are quite numerous. Penguin omelet to go with your whale steak?

          There are penguins in Africa. I saw a colony once there that had been predated by a leopard.

          • Omelet and steak for breakfast, introducing a southern habit aswell (Aussie I think).

            I ate whale sausage once in Henningsvær. Quite strong taste!
            Holidays on Vesterålen, highs and lows.
            Best scenery I’ve seen, one of my dogs died at Hinnøya.

        • “They are not for eating!!!”

          Kind of depends on who the top level predator is at the time…

          A philosopher once stated… “Get in my belly!

          To be honest… I was quite happy the other day when I stopped to get an order of gizzards.

          It’s about the only variation of chicken that I like.

  6. This isn’t particularly good news – pre-print so some caution.

    SARS-CoV-2 Uses CD4 to Infect T Helper Lymphocytes

    The mechanism by which SARS-CoV-2 infection may result in immune system dysfunction is not fully understood. Here we show that SARS-CoV-2 infects human CD4+T helper cells, but not CD8+T cells, and is present in blood and bronchoalveolar lavage T helper cells of severe COVID-19 patients. We demonstrated that SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein (S) directly binds to the CD4 molecule, which in turn mediates the entry of SARS-CoV-2 in T helper cells in a mechanism that also requires ACE2 and TMPRSS2. Once inside T helper cells, SARS-CoV-2 assembles viral factories, impairs cell function and may cause cell death. SARS-CoV-2 infected T helper cells express higher amounts of IL-10, which is associated with viral persistence and disease severity. Thus, CD4-mediated SARS-CoV-2 infection of T helper cells may explain the poor adaptive immune response of many COVID-19 patients.

  7. Korovin’s showing an uptick on Atka Island (Alaska) – a post-caldera strat within a shield. Atka complex is apparently the largest volcano in the Aleutians – certainly impressive on google maps.

    • Ive seen many debates as to how long after the event dinosaurs could have survived. Some are that they would all be gone within days which is borderline divine intervention, but many more others that have said that there would be non-avian dinosaurs that were generations younger than the boundary, thousands of years or even a million years in one case.

      This totally debunks that, and this really makes out in a better way than I have ever seen previously how apocalyptic the K-Pg impact really was. It is easy to forget how advanced dinosaurs really were, to wipe them out in 20 years and have the only survivors be so specialised they lose out to a slightly better version of the thing they originally replaced back in the Triassic, its not a trivial matter.

      • A flood basalt with a 300 teraton explosion equals tons of death. It’s even crazier when there was 2 other extinction events just as bad or worse than K-pg.

        • I do wonder though if you do a comparison of all the extinction events which one is truely the worst. P-Tr is by total percentage worse, but that is not the whole picture, K-Pg is possibly the true worst in terms of how much it shook up the world, the late Cretaceous was almost familiar, while the world of the late Permian was alien, and most importantly the diversity of life in the late Permian was not particularly high by the standards of a healthy modern environment, as expected for a single landmass mostly made of desert.
          It is also worth considering that if the ‘age of dinosaurs’ where they were totally dominant was from 200 to 65 million years ago, then the point their reign was as long as the ‘age of mammals’ was not when the K-Pg impact happened but back in the late Jurassic, not even half way. For mammals to reach the diversity of late Cretaceous dinosaurs will take another 80 million years, or at least it would have except we reset the clock again… Not at all inferring that there was intelligent dinosaurs anywhere (though we would never know anyway), but if we went from things that looked like squirrels to what we are today in 70 million years, dinosaurs had twice as long to do that, and debatebly superior biomechanics.

          There is of course the speed, being that it was an instant impact and we know larger sauropods and probably most big dinosaurs lived for decades or possibly even centuries, the last individuals were probably born before the impact, a true apocalypse, and it was probably so fast that in the decades after the extinction there would have actually been skeletons of dinosaurs in the landscape that the living animals no longer existed in.
          There seems to have been several stages to the P-Tr extinction, and while decimated in numbers a lot of surprisingly large animals survived it, including apex predators in some areas which is very unusual. It is possibly the immense extent of time since then that makes it look quick, when it was prolonged over at least half a million years, as expected from a flood basalt as the main cause. Actually, it is quite striking how many groups of animals did survive an event that is called the ‘great dying’…

          Too wordy. admin

        • Last time Earth had healthy megafauna was in Late Pliocene

          After that it started to go downhill towards End pleistocene extinction and the 2000 s mass extinction

          Americas megafauna was the later that was wiped out by homonins

  8. I suspect Hector will know more about some of this, there is a 6 km3 flood basalt near the end of the Puna Ridge that is under 200 years old, considered the youngest alkali basalt from Kilauea and the biggest single eruption of a Hawaiian volcano in that time, even above the combined volume of Pu’u O’o and fissure 8 (5.6 km3). There was a reported brief submarine eruption near cape Kumukahi in 1884, maybe this and the huge flow are related.

    Apparently the entire Hawaiian trough is layered with tholeiitic flood basalts, and that is meaning true flood basalts, going into tens or maybe even hundreds of km3 in volume. The deep sea is probably a regular spectator to eruptions far bigger than anything we have observed.

    The source is Growth and degradation of Hawaiian Volcanoes, 2014.

    • They cite Holcomb:

      Holcomb had no idea of the flows age, only its existence and size, he mentioned 1790 as merely a possibility, and while I do think the Puna Ridge must have erupted in 1790 it was probably in the upper parts of the ridge, and must have been somewhere in the 0.5-2 km³ range based on the size of the caldera, the Great Crater, there might have been a wider shallower collapse around too, and the 4 UERZ young pit craters that add a very small volume.

      The flow at the tip of the Puna Ridge is estimated in 50 km³ by Holcomb, but it has probably formed in more than one eruption and there must be older similar flows filling the Hawaiian Through that are covered by sediment and younger flows, I think the largest ones must have >25 km³ if they drained the deep/south caldera reservoir, which I think some did.

      Part of the Hawaiian Through flow field is alkalic, but most of it seems to be tholeeitic lava, so even if 120 km away, the eruption was fed directly from the summit of Kilauea. I think the summit is unable to erupt so low in the ridge right now by the way the volcano behaves: dykes intrude only above 3 km, the expanding deep mush takes care of the spreading 3-8 km deep, that means a dyke may not even be physically able to erupt so low (5.5 km low) in the Puna Ridge with the current plumbing. An eruption in the uppermost end of the Puna Ridge is also deep enough to collapse the summit-ERZ connection, which is what must have happened in 1790 and 1650, this last eruption, Kahawali, was maybe even part subaerial, so deeper portions of the Puna Ridge might be unreachable by intrusions, the ERZ connection breaks down long before that can happen.

      In the past the Puna Ridge formed enormous satellitic shields which even the subaerial east rift struggles to do right now, Kane Nui O Hamo and Pu’u’o’o are the only really large shield structures of the last few thousand years. To explain how the Puna Ridge was so different in the past comes my hypothesis that the plumbing of Kilauea was arranged in a different manner and that it was destroyed in a giant collapse, and Hawaiian Through eruption, that formed the Kaoiki scarps around 11000 years ago. Kilauea probably lost the ability to erupt in the East Rift at all, initially only the Kilauea Iki line? the ancient ERZ, and the rest of the rift has probably awakened downrift gradually over the Holocene. Reason is that the summit storage probably grows over time, it extends towards the east rift and makes the connection stronger and deeper, increasing melting of the rift interior also improves the connection and makes long lived eruptions possible. MERZ/LERZ reservoirs and the South Caldera Reservoir have probably grown uninterruptedly throughout the Holocene, even if the Halema’uma’u reservoir has collapsed over and over again. So my personal opinion is that the Puna Ridge is currently starting to reactivate which also explains why there is no historical Puna Ridge eruption even though it makes more than half the east rift. The last large tholeeitic flood of the Hawaiian Through may be 11000 years old, corresponding to the last large collapse of the deeper Kilauea storage. Alkalic through eruptions probably come from the mantle below so may have taken place more recently, they do not depend on the state of Kilauea.

      • It is indeed a shame the deep sea is so hard to date, you are right the Puna Ridge probably has a lot of the history of Kilauea that is buried by more recent flows on land, and is getting increasingly buried as eruptions cover new ground.
        I did propose the idea somewhere on another comment that perhaps LERZ eruptions and intrusions are prone to happening in pairs, 1955 and 1960 are obvious but 1840 was also apparently preceeded by a large intrusion and rifting event in 1838 which didnt erupt but made it to the area. You propose a submarine eruption in 1790 which is only a few years after the flows in the Leilani area that you say are from about 1780, which may itself also be a pair a few years apart so possibly 3 eruptions in under 20 years in the LERZ. I guess it waits to be seen but maybe the next eruption will be in Puna again, maybe near Cape Kumukahi.

        • There is a pattern of eruptions moving uprift in 1955-1975, it seems the rift was stretched by the 1954 earthquake and maybe also by a largest historic slow slip in 1952, activity started in the LERZ and later moved to the upper rifts and summit area in the 1970s, together with a rise in summit pressure and compression of the rifts before the south flank gave way in the 1975 earthquake and pressure lowered with activity moving downrift to the MERZ and staying there due to the formation of Pu’u’o’o. So there are tectonic cycles, the M 6.9 of 2018 has again stretched the rift so that would be expected to concentrate activity low in the rift, lower than Pu’u’o’o in the next several years.

          Activity also tends to concentrate lower in the rift towards the end of draining-related cycles, if you include Heiheahulu, then the 1750-1790 period had at least 4 eruptions in the LERZ and Puna Ridge, activity also concentrated in the 1600-1650 period in the LERZ with a minimum of 5 eruptions but probably more. This must be in part due to increased motion of the south flank towards the end of a cycle but also has to do with the ERZ connection which becomes stronger with time. The summit-ERZ connection was very sluggish in the 1920s and the flank barely moved compared to now. 2018 not only resulted in stretching of the rift and faster flank movement, but also strengthened the summit-rift connection down to the Highway 130 reservoir (JOKA station), which plays a role in feeding LERZ eruptions, this is another factor that will encourage lower rift activity in the near-future.

          So where will the next eruption happen? I think the MERZ and the LERZ will concentrate most activity in the future decades, the volcano will lack pressure to erupt in the summit and upper rifts, there will probably be many failed dyke intrusions. The bottom of Halema’uma’u can erupt, probably in long-lived surseyan activity like it happened in the late 1700s and in the 1600s. Another satellitic shield could form downrift of Pu’u’o’o and it is likely the Puna Ridge will erupt big at some point resulting in another caldera collapse, probably big basalt blast, and pit crater formation.

          • That area is where the 2014 flow turned towards Pahoa, an actual eruption in that area could easily send a lot more flows there again if a big shield forms there, as well as into Leilani and Nanawale, probably the area will look very different in a few decades.

          • It also looks as though the rest of Leilani Estates is in deep trouble for future activity, I did have a look and there has been magma movement at about the location of the highway after 2018, where the JOKA station moved north west and up between March and June, meaning the peak deformation was further to the east downrift.

      • It’s nice to see it mapped next to the island. Shows how far these flows travelled away from their source even over the flat ground of the hawaiian moat, they were gigantic eruptions, 2018 is a tiny spot in comparison.

        • Flow is of very comparable size to big flood basalts in Iceland, and probably more voluminous given lava flows underwater are usually not as extensive for the volume, the flow is probably tens of meters thick in places which gives volumes upwards of 20 km3. Both flow lobes are just over 50 km long assuming the source is at the bend in the middle, theres actually a crater just next to that which might be the vent.

          It would be very handy if there was an INSAR map for the last 3 months because the deep summit inflation seems to be accelerating over time without getting shallower. Even at Mauna Ulu there is upward movement visible though small, the whole summit area is inflating on a huge scale but deep down where the tilt doesnt show. Maybe the shallow chamber under Halemaumau is disconnected, but the deep feed to the rifts is not, so maybe the magma is migrating along the rift zone instead of erupting at the summit first, interesting.

          • Other papers state that such flows consist of multiple eruptions, over some 30,000 years with individual eruptions perhaps 2000 years apart. That brings it more in line with typical Kilauea eruptions.

          • I dont see why that would be, you get lava flows on land in Iceland that are that voluminous and an eruption at 5000 meters deep on the Puna Ridge would both be at least 3 times the gravitational energy and with access to far more magma than an eruption at Veidivotn, as Hector says these eruptions probably drain out the entire magmatic system of Kilauea, which is probably even bigger at depth than the Icelandic volcanoes, the bit we are used to is just the tip of the iceberg.

            The eruptions also still have to send the lava 50 km from the vent and underwater no less, Mauna Loa 1877 submarine flow was nearly 0.5 km3 of lava at high rate yet flowed only 6 km.

          • An important argument I see is that the Kaoiki Pali coincides almost perfectly with the outline of Kilauea’s gravity high, the deep rift or mush zone (a body of partially molten dunite) to the northwest, the Koae faults bound it to the south.

            There is no good explanation as to why the Kaoiki faults formed, it is not related to rifting because it hasn’t ruptured in more than 9000 yrs, it is not related to slumping because Kilauea’s rift sones buttress it, and hawaiian rift zones are really good at buttressing. Its location at the edge of the mush zone suggest that it formed as the rim of a massive collapse >9000 yrs ago, as melt rich lenses, that exist now or used to exist then, located more than 3 km deep (the upper limit of the deep rift) drained, this is the best explanation I can see. It would be the only remaining rim of an ancient caldera that elsewhere has been covered in voluminous overflows from the summit of Kilauea. A drastic shift in Mauna Loa’s and Kilauea’s activity took place at 11000 years which is probably the date for the hypothesised giant collapse.

            A collapse of the mush zone area by just about 100 meters (which is the downdrop of some Kaoiki faults) would already yield a volume of at least 25 km³. The only eruptions with enough size and that are also located the lowest in elevation and therefore best for draining are the ones at the tip of the Puna Ridge.

      • The Hana Ridge of Haleakala (its submarine east rift) was active for 0.5 million years (1.8-1.3) and the shield stage of Kilauea is just 100,000-60,000 years old. So most likely the Puna Ridge still has most of its history ahead, it is unlikely to go extinct so early in Kilauea’s growth, activity is probably just episodic controlled by tens of thousands of years long cycles.

  9. This illustration shows what a sprite could look like in Jupiter’s atmosphere. sprites last for only a few milliseconds. They feature a blob of light with long tendrils of light extending down toward the ground and upward. In Earth’s upper atmosphere, their interaction with nitrogen give sprites a reddish hue.
    At Jupiter, where the predominance of hydrogen in the upper atmosphere would likely give them a blue hue.

    These forms over powerful water thunder cumulonimbus anvils on Jupiter.
    Electrical show over a bottomless pit

    • That woud be a spectacular sight in the atmosphere there.
      Some Jupiter CB s are mammoth sized compared to terestrial equalents. Jupiters cumulonimbus can tower 80 km tall and trail anvil blowoff for thousands of kilometers downwind.

    • To stay bouyant in Jupiters hydrogen atmosphere, you needs huge ”warm hydrogen balloon probes” and these woud not work indeed at sprite altitudes. They woud have to float well below the upper clouds to work, perhaps as far down as the water clouds where pressure is 5 Earth bars. At these altitudes on Jupiter its mostly overcast and rainy. Balloon probes will work there.

    • Chad perhaps
      What colour woud ligthing bolts on Jupiter have? Jupiter is a really creepy place, bottomless abyss.

      Its so sucks that Galileo Atmospheric Probe did not have a camera.

      But lighthing on Jupiter woud be blue? but Earth bolts are blue – white too.

  10. This is (yet another 🙂 ) question regarding Hawaii to Hector, more about what seems to be some interesting interpretations. I have been doing research on Hualalai to try and make a post about it, in about 1250 it had a large eruption from a vent that is called Waha Pele, which suggests that eruption was observed and that Pele was the attributed deity. The eruptions surrounding the formation of Kilaueas caldera including the Aila’au flows are also entirely attributed to Pele, Aila’au is not a part of that story despite lending the name to a flow. Pele is also behind the story of the Hapaimanu eruption from Mauna Loa, it doesnt really ever appear that another deity is blamed on eruptions at all even in modern times except for 2018. It is quite puzzling too that only one story about volcanism in Hawaii isnt about Kilauea, even if there might be conservation bias its quite unlikely one volcano would stand out, perhaps the recent focus on Mauna Loa is exactly that, a recent thing, its prehistoric eruptions rarely of any significant danger?

    Maybe this doesnt count as a question, more a topic that isnt directly about Kilaueas current activity 🙂

    • Holcomb gave the name to the Aila’au flows if I remember right, hawaiians attributed the summit overflows of Kilauea to Pele when William Ellis visited the island in 1823, so presumably the Aila’au overflows too.

      Yes, Hapaimamu is the only legend regarding Mauna Loa that I know of, perhaps it was the only highly impactful eruption. Mauna Loa was in a low state of activity for most of the 1300-1800 period, that could be why it is underrepresented in hawaiian tradition I guess.

  11. Imagine the universe as a perfect sand castle thats then left to the elements to decay. Cosmos becomming more caotic and unusable everyday. The Infamous Second Law of Thermodynamics.

    Not even the most massive supermassive black holes, can resist the arrow of time. The universe can be imagined as these crumbling old maya ruins. Perhaps cosmos is ”rotting”

    Ummm Tellurium haves an insanely long lifespann: tellurium-128 (128Te) with a half-life estimated at 7.7 × 1024 years by double β-decay (double beta decay. In the extremely far future all atoms will decay into radiation.

    • All dead, all rotten, stars, and planets, and galaxies.
      The tooth of time thats whats the future haves in store… everyting dissolves to nothing

      • Don’t forget Hawking radiation, when those mega-black holes run out of stuff to eat, then start spitting it back. There’ll be a very long time, but light will return. Um, given the expansion of Universe will have seriously spread such monsters apart, we’re talking new ‘Big Bangs’, surely ??

      • In a googol or so years when the last supermassive black holes have evaporated away, we are left with a universe thats almost competely empty 🤔 just the faintest of crackling of radio waves echoes across the chilling black ocean.. brrr what a freezer.

        Cosmos will be like a still pond, not a single wave

  12. Extreme closeup of one of IO s many calderas. This is the Chaac caldera.
    Chaac is a 50 km long Patera, but strangely does not contain an active lava lake like unlike many others that do on IO. The floor is filled with recent sillicate lava flows that looks identical with the hawaiian calderas on Earth.
    Gas jetting fumaroles maybe present along the walls. The walls itself is identical to Earth calderas, with basalt layers and rubble. The floor lavas are probaly pahoehoe.

  13. Looks amazing one of the closest photos of IO ever! and very similar to perhaps Mauna Loas summit caldera
    But faar faar larger

    • The dark mounds there below the lava vent channel are probaly tumulus inflated mounds ( identical to hawaiian counterparts ) the caldera walls are huge in the low gravity probaly more than 1 kilometers tall

      • I am trying to work out which is the upper, and which is the lower segments… You can see this picture either way!
        Fascinating picture.

      • Clive the shadow is the caldera rim on IO.

        The floor is where you haves the sillicate lava flows. Its just like Hawaii basalt volcanism, IO s magmas are acually hotter than earths
        ( up to 1700 C! ) so these caldera flows likley flowed like liquid iron slag over the surface. IO likley erupts ultramafic basalts.

        1300 C / 1400 C are common eruption temperature on IO and often measured in large lava fountains and lava lakes. IO s sillicate lavas are probaly more fluid than Earths knowing their high temperatures. The very high temperatures can only be measured when large ammounts of magma are exposed to the surface

    • Chaac Caldera on IO cutaway
      The caldera rim dwarf Grand Canyon! totaly

      IO s low gravity forms huge magma chambers and allows huge volcanic structures to form, thats why their volcanoes are so much bigger than earths. IO also produces far more magma than Earth do

  14. DIY “jokulhlaups”

    The team drilled through glacier to sample the lake beneath, but met a strong down-flow that nearly swallowed their kit.

    Several days later, a small jokulhlaup erupted from beneath glacier. Duly detected and avoided…

    They reckon there’d been an intra-glacial lake, which their bore-hole connected to the sub-glacial lake. Which was a factor / feature not previously considered. And, IMHO, may account for some of the weird-ish radar reports else-where…

    IIRC, drilling through one aquifer to reach a lower one has caused many problems with pollution etc. I’ve lost the link, but I’d read of cases where badly-cased well to deep aquifer drained the shallow aquifer in local use.

  15. Cutaway again of IO s Chaac Caldera compared to Gran Canyon for larger view here. IO s volcanoes are simply so enormous, they dwarf any volcanic complex on Earth. All the Patera and lava lake pits on IO dwarf anything on Earth. The entire Grand Canyon can almost be fitted inside this Alien caldera

    Notice the caldera floor basalt flows, just like the flows in Hawaiian calderas.
    One dark mafic sillicate flow appears to have erupted through a ringfault along the patera wall. This data comes from the Galileo Spacecraft. The landscapes there must be a spectacular sight, the caldera wall towers above you and the pahoehoe shines in the daylight, Jupiter looms 30 times larger in the sky than our moon.

        • Would you rather 2 big eruptions this year and two next year or would you rather 4 eruptions next year instead 🙂

          Next year is in only 2 months, and Grimsvotn and Kilauea both had bigger than typical last eruptions so probably wouldnt be unexpected to take a bit longer than the minimum but next year is probable for both. I dont actually know much for anywhere else, but theres usually a VEI 4 in about every year, the last was in 2019 but there were two that year. Problem is VEI 4s sort of just happen, one of the eruptions in 2019 happened at a volcano which was dormant for a century and the other was a volcano that erupts yearly…

          Im actually disappointed no big eruptions happened, we only got a pandemic and more climate change, the alien invasion didnt happen either, not much of an apocalypse 🙁

          • I don’t care about ACC or the pandemic, I only want volcanic or meteorological action. Since the year is almost over I can wait a few months for another eruption.
            I am hoping for a VEI 5 after all we haven’t had one of those in 30 years.

          • There were two eruptions in 2011 that are only not VEI 5s because of pedantics, and Holuhraun and Leilani would also have been if explosive. VEI 5s that erupt the whole volume in an hour are very high magnitude and 30 years is probably reasonable repose for that. Even the climactic stage of Pinatubo on its own would be VEI 5 but it lasted a few days to get over the threshold of a 6.

          • The 3 biggest eruptions of 2011; Nabro, Puyhue-cordon, and Grimsvotn. were all VEI 4, Effusive eruptions are cool but for me they’re just not the same

          • Grimsvotn would qualify as a VEI 5 in most places, though apparently not in Iceland. Same for Puyehue-Cordon Caulle, it was a VEI 4 by DRE which is the cited volume but the tephra was over 1 km3 and then at least 0.5 km3 of lava afterwards.

          • I dont know also if you have a sort of grey area in between for really fast effusive eruptions, because Grimsvotn 2011 also erupted 1 km3 of lava with the tephra which went into filling its caldera, this was erupted during the visible activity too. The first week of Holuhraun erupted about 0,2 km3 of lava, and because it was observed so well we know fissure 8 eruted 0.12 km3 of lava in a given week, though maybe a bit more in its first week but around that number regardless. As you can see these numbers are pretty similar, and under 1/5 of what Grimsvotn erupted in 2011. 1 km3 in a week is 1600 m3/s average, I dont think theres actually been an effusive eruption on video with that sort of rate and most likely it was way higher at the peak, if there was no ice it would have been very different to simply scaling up fissure 8 to be 10x bigger, probably the 2015 fountains at Etna are comparable except it is that going continuously for a week…

            I want a real eruption to happen so I can stop talking about hypotheticals 🙁

          • 1 km3 of lava? The published eruption volume is 0.2 km3 DRE. I am sure a lava output equal to Holuhraun would have been noticed.

          • Grimvötn and Kilauea are tiny compared to Pele Patera on IO. Peles Patera lava lake must be a mindblowing sight its 50 kilometers long and 20 km wide. All churned up with gigantic waves and crustal founderings. Most of Pele Patera is covered by a thin crust, but there is lots of lava fountains. Earth only does these during major flood basalts


          • I thought that there was supposed to be 1 km3 or more of something that filled in the caldera most of the way in 2011, displacing most of the lake, or is that one of those old ideas from the early days of the site which has not stood the test of time.

            Even still most basaltic eruptions take a lot more than a few days to get to 0.2 km3, only eruption I can think of which managed that and is actually recorded in video is Mauna Loa 1950, as said before fissure 8 and Holuhraun both took about 2 weeks to reach that volume.

          • The Gjalp 1996 erupted 0,7km3 in just a few days. it woud be a crazy lava eruption without Ice. Perhaps similar to Wolf 2015 in speed and size of the fountains

          • Wolf 2015 was not a particularly big eruption, about 0.1 km3 but over 2 months with an intense start. Most Galapagos eruptions are very intense but of low volume, though with exceptions.

            Gjalp melted ice at a rate of 5000 m3/s in the first week according to the report on Global Volcanism Program, lava contains about enough energy to melt 3x its volume of water so that is 1600 m3/s for the eruption, though it was basaltic andesite not fresh basalt so the eruption probably would have been more strombolian than hawaiian, massive fountains and thick a’a flows.

          • Then it woud have been a mammoth version of Fimmvördhals fissure
            With fountains as tall as Oshima Japan and indeed large blocky aa flowing out.

          • The exception would be the 1968 flank eruption of Fernandina which should have erupted around 1.5 km³ DRE in about a week. As a general rule effusive eruptions of Galapagos are faster compared for the same given volume to Hawaii or Iceland.

          • Galapagos sits under a very very thin oceanic litopshere, close to the superfast spreading EPR. The litopshere outside Galapagos platform may only be 20 kilometers thick, so its weird that Galapagos does not erupt more often, the hotspot is also very powerful. You can see two tracks from the Galapagos hotspot, as the spreading ridge crossed the hotspot recently, and it burned two trails

        • I am sure that this blog has had enough arguing about the rating puyhue-cordon chile so I am not gonna bring that up. Those rates for Grimsvotn sound impressive, it is unfortunate though that we couldn’t get video of that. Hypothetical eruptions are the only thing we got right now so we might as well try to enjoy it

          • We coud make earth larger ( 6 earth masses ) that woud hardly increase gravity ( 10 earth masses yeilds only 2 G ). 7 earth masses yeilds 1,4 G.

            If Earth was larger it would generate more internal heat …a larger earth would be more geologically active. If earth was larger we would have more internal heating..More heat from compression as the planet formed, and more radioactive elements trapped deeper. and a larger planet retains its internal heat more. Square surface ratio
            A Larger earth would have stronger mantle convection and more and smaller plates. A larger Earth would likely be very geologically active with numerous ocean ridges and hyperactive spreading centers and subduction zones. the larger and more massive a rocky planet is the higher gear the geologically activity-many plates, rifts, ranges and volcanoes; possibly so hot inside that its plates are more elastic than Earth’s. A big world holds heat better. And with proportionately more interior to surface area, the heat can’t easily escape–the surface has to work to release as much as it can…

            Super Earth exoplanets maybe displays hyperactive tectonics and a faster mineral cycle. The continents are small and no or very small cratons because the high level of geologically activity
            The result is an island world with no stable landmasses.

          • Another crazy plan I haves, is to move Jupiter to earths location,
            move IO to another orbit and place Planet Earth at IO s location.
            Basicaly Jupiter in habitable zone, and Earth on IO s place.

            Jupiters and its moons tides woud make our oceans go crazy!
            And volcanoes woud go crazy. Plate Tectonics woud sourely react to 300 times stronger tides

          • The last option is not a good idea, that woud turn earth back to the late hadean era. Alll the volcanism woud choke the atmosphere with CO2 and knowing that the sun is stronger now, than back then, IO – Earth woud likley tranform itself to a venusian nightmare in orbit around jupiter.

            The first option is better, a bit larger and placed in habitable zone outer edge ( delete mars and place huge earth there )

          • Earth wouldnt behave like Io if it were placed in that orbit, the energy comes from the tides (ultimately angular momentum from rotation of Jupiter) but it is kept in an elliptical orbit by its resonance with Europa and Ganymede. Earth is physically not enormous against the Galilean moons but it is way more massive than all the moons in the entire solar system combined so it just throws everything into chaos. You would need to have Venus orbit Jupiter too, and then combine all of the rest of the solid objects in the solar system into a 3rd planet which would still be the smallest of the 3 to give a 3 member resonance. Easier just to have earth in resonance with Jupiter in an elliptical orbit around the sun where Mercury is now, its not habitable but neither is the van alen belt of Jupiter…

            It is though possible the tidal friction of the earth spinning down next to Jupiter could melt it, if theres enough energy in the rotation, but I dont know how that stuff works so maybe better ask Albert.

          • IO is an amazing moon: coud be a metafor for Magmor Caverns in Metroid Prime ( MP1 2002 the best game ever made )
            I guess that Europa woud be Phendrana Drifts then

            I can almost see Meta Ridely emerging from Pele pateras lava lake and perhaps there is a space pirate base hideen under IO s lava tubes

  16. I have been thinking since the last post in the big basalt blasts series, what is the actual magnitude of these eruptions in shear power? I did try to find what would happen once way back before I found this site if an eruption evaporated the lake at Kilauea in a very short interval, the lake has a volume of about half a million m3 right now maybe close to a million to 1.5 million when it reaches the level HVO expects, which would turn into 1600 times that volume of steam, or about 2 km3 volume which is bigger than the caldera and would be quite the massive blast. But it is not actually the lake at the volcano that does anything, it is only a visible indicator of a waterlogged system.

    If the explosions are broadly comparable to nuclear explosions then you could probaby put a megaton number to them, which is not really so applicable to magmatic explosive eruptions that are far from instantaneous. I guess a good comparison is what would happen if you buried a nuke at successive depths, how much material would it excavate. The biggest subterranean nuclear test was the Cannikin test in 1971 which was 5 megatons at about 1.8 km deep, which is a depth that is probably quite similar to the eruptions. That test didnt breach the surface so it is only my assumption that these steam eruptions are way bigger than that in power expecially if they can pulverize and blow 10+ km3 of heavy basalt dust into the atmosphere as at Masaya. I guess maybe it is the energy to pulverise the rock + the energy to eject it, and that is the minimum value?

    • After publishing the series I got interested in Krakatau, realizing that the hydrothermal blast endmember of big basalt blasts was very similar to the later stages of the Krakatau 1883 eruption. Similar in the loud explosion sounds, that indicate a sudden ejection of large volumes of material, and formation of powerful surges. The same mechanism of magma and water meeting during the emptying of a magmatic reservoir is probably involved in both, this deep magma-water interaction seems to be responsible for the pattern of large explosions and surges that some giant silicic eruptions like Krakatau, and most big basalt blasts share.

      Broadly speaking Krakatau started as a plinian eruption with pumice falls and small pyroclastic surges and tsunamis and then went into a second stage of 4 very powerful explosions heard thousands of kilometers away, rains of mud, tsunamis with run-ups of more than 35 meters, and pyroclastic surges that reached more than 40 km away, killing people on Sumatra. The Masaya Tuff produced surges reaching up to 45 km away to the Chiltepe Peninsula, so given that the maximum distance reached by surges is comparable between the 2 eruptions, and that there seems to be an explosion-surge coupling, then it is possible the magnitude of the explosion (or explosions) of the Masaya Tuff was comparable in size to the largest bang of Krakatau (the one at 10:00 AM). I hope that can help you answer your question. Most big basalt blasts are smaller than the Masaya Tuff though. Taal may have produced some even larger surges in the past but the stratigraphy is poorly studied.

      If this can be used to understand the formation of giant surges in general, then the eruptions of Kikai and Taupo (Hatepe 200 AD), where surges swept a radius of 80 km, must have involved explosions of an intensity way beyond that of Krakatau and involve the interaction of water and magma at depth near the reservoir.

        • Perhaps it spans the vertical extent of a ring fault, the explosion starts near the suface but propagates rapidly downward as the superheated and supercritical water get released together with magma and related gasses. But the water would be heated mostly at the top of the reservoir, the base of the ring faults, some kms deep. and then circulate upwards through the fracturing rock, with cold surface water circulating down to replace it. It would be a complex scenario.

      • Its interesting how far from the textbook basics this site has come. Classic expectation is basalt is effusive and silicic magma gets more explosive, all steep volcanoes are silicic, plinian eruptions blow up mountains like nukes and hawaiian eruptions are always tiny and insignificant because the VEI scale is misunderstood.

        Maybe it isnt surprising the two volcanoes which are most closely watched here are Kilauea and Grimsvotn, the pair that are supposed to be archetypal of their location yet have broken every single one of the rules with enthusiasm…

  17. Small earthquake swarm near Mt. Lassen in California. USGS thinks it’s likely tectonic. Almost got excited…

    • I am STILL tracking Chiles-cerro negro despite there being almost no point any more. That’s how bored I am. I am getting conflicting earthquake numbers with a difference of I don’t know? about 900? Yeah that’s right. I can’t discern a damn thing looking at the numbers and while it seems like subsidence is occurring around the volcano. I can’t tell if it’s related to the volcano or not. I still don’t and will probably never know how big the intrusion or chamber is. I won’t know how the activity of this volcano is related to the others. Even if I am dead right about all of my propositions, an eruption doesn’t seem imminent.
      I don’t have any public data for Tatun or Corbetti and there aren’t any new studies concerning them. Iceland is moving along at a snail’s pace and Hawaii isn’t much different. Nyiragongo is looking bad but It doesn’t look like an imminent danger at the moment.
      So I am thirsty for some volcanic action!

      • I think we all are… even Jasper is being forced to go to other planets (moons) to get some volcano action!

        • The half of the activity relating to Chiles-cerro negro isn’t even being monitored by physical stations, there has been no geochemical data released in months, and nothing else has come up to distract me from this volcano

  18. A beautyful shot of Maasaw Patera thats near IO s south pole.
    This is a giant alien shield volcano, that reminds me of an overgrown Galapagos volcano.
    Maasaw Patera is 200 kilometers wide and perhaps 15 kilometers tall. Numerous dark basaltic flows seems to have erupted from ring faults near the caldera. The caldera is deep, many kilometers and the inner pit coud perhaps be a lava lake?. IO s volcanoes are huge,and its calderas massive, low gravity and very large magma chambers. Some of the lava flows from this are over 100 km long and 15 km wide. Similar but smaller flows and craters occur on the island of Hawaii.

    • Holuhraun lava field is tiny compared to IO s lava flows. this image is apporx 20 Holuhrauns fields wide. The flank lava flows are Thjorsa and Laki sized in this Voyager photo

      • That probably means the entire caldera is extensively waterlogged and scrubbing the SO2. Looks like the volcano is indeed entering a period of explosive summit eruptions again, with most volume being from large eruptions on the rift as Hector has hypothesized. Unless said rift eruption is another 30 year satellitic shield eruption this might prove a big blow to the tourism the volcano brings in.

        • No, it means the place is cooling down or the air is warming up. Fumaroles are water vapour.

          • The same effect would occur even more so if it is mostly water vapor, though two of the fumaroles are definitely SO2 vents as well seeing they are persistent hotspots on the wall (nearly 300 C I think, at least 150 C) and covered in sulfur. It is getting towards winter in Hawaii and Kilauea is 1 km above sea level so its not exactly tropical there, HVO has seen frost before, if it is warming then that is probably not a good sign.

          • I am not sure you understand the point. Fumaroles fading means eruption is less likely, not more. (Although in reality fumaroles do not indicate any eruption, as all it is is water circulation.) You see condensation of water vapour. So either you have less vapour, or it doesn’t condense. The SO2 has nothing to do with the argument. It is a trace in the fumarole. This movie was taken over a year, so the second half was mostly summer.

  19. As much as some of us would love to see any new really significant eruptive activity (VEI 4/5+), I’m frankly not sure if right now is a good time for any such activity to take place during a pandemic like COVID-19.

    A large eruption is going to force a lot of people indoors, even in a country with a warm year-round climate, due to ashfall and other dangers associated with large volcanic eruptions. That could make localized outbreaks worse as social distancing and possibly also increased hygiene methods (due to possible lack of cleaning agents) get thrown out the window. This is also especially as local populations have to be evacuated beforehand from near any threatening volcano. If a pandemic as bad as the current one had occurred right when Pinatubo went up in 1991, this would’ve proved quite a headache for the Filipino authorities in controlling outbreaks IMO.

    Even if a really big eruption happened in a remote place well away from populated areas like Katmai in 1912, it still may not be good as the cooling associated with such a large eruption may force more people indoors. Not just because of ashfall, but also climate cooling caused by injection of SO2 and volcanic dust into the upper atmosphere. This could make for more severe/colder winters than normal in may places around the world.

    • We did have Taal this year, it didn’t go big but it was unexpected.
      Anak Krakatoa went off as well.
      Piton de la Fournaise & Grimsvotn both look likely next year.

      The future’s bright, the future’s lava.

      • Add Mauna Loa and Nyiragongo to that list, as well as Kilauea and maybe Reykjanes/whatever volcano that area is. Bardarbunga too, its pretty similar situation to Kilauea except a few years further along, it might have already erupted if it wasnt stuck under ice though probably it wont erupt outside the glacier for a while. Thing is its pretty much guaranteed one of the basaltic shields worldwide will erupt in 2021, its kind of part of the deal that these volcanoes which erupt tholeiitic basalt are frequent big erupters.

  20. Reading up on the east african rift valley. SO understudied.
    Large volcanic centres like Ol Kokwe, Elgon, Kenya, Silali, Kulal and then further north you have Corbetti, Shala, Aluto & Gedamsa calderas all in a line just to name a few.
    I would place a bet that the largest eruptions in the last millenia came from this area.

    • Mt Kenya is enormous, absoutley enormous for a land volcano, In its haydays a few million years ago it coud have been as tall as 8000 meters! and its around 100 kilometers wide, really enormous alkaline volcanoes. Kilimanjaro and Mount Elgon are other similar examples. Nogorogongo is insane too. Mount Kenya was an icecapped behemoth in its prime years and its still active but severely eroded by pleistocene Ice Ages. Other land continetal volcanoes like rainier are tiny in comparsion.
      These huge African Giants forms their own weather systems and becomes forested Islands in the Savannah sea. Kenya is home to unique cold adapted flora and fauna, so its been there for a long time. Today Kenya is over 5000 m.
      Kenya is an jungle Island as well alpine retreat in an otherwise hot Savannah lowland sea.

      But thr Hawaiian volcanoes are much bigger still, ( they deforms the seafloor ) and woud probaly grow into the stratosphere in they emerged on a cold very thick continetal crust.

      • Hawaii hotspot would cause a major flood basalt if it was stuck under a continent. There are no 15 km tall volcanoes on Venus, they top out at 9 km which is pretty much the same as mountains here, Hawaii is able to get around this by being in the ocean which supports it otherwise the volcanoes would probably max out at 8-9 km tall.

    • Nyiramulagira may grow into souch gigantic beast in the future. Its growing at amazing speed ( 20 000 years old max )
      But Kilauea haves a current higher growth rate.

      But Albertine – rift and Plume will likley go full flood basalt in the future as the plume head decompress more

    • Chad what causes these mammoth sized African volcanoes? They are very very alkaline and really dont have a prolific supply. Kenya and Kilimanjaro are continetal mammoths! amazing sizes with souch extremely alkaline compositions.

      Magmas at Kilimanjaro are phonolite, phonotephrite, and tephriphonolite, the difference is between the last two, they are both intermediate compositions between phonolite and tephrite, but tephriphonolite is closer to phonolite than phonotephrite. Phonotephrite is less alkali content (7-12%) and less silica (45-53%) than tephriphonolite (9-14% alkali and – 58 to 67 % sillica ).

      These are extremely alkaline evolved sillica rich rocks… they are extremely rare too on Earths surface. The parent magma of Kilimanjaro coud be a Basanite or Nephelinite or Tephrite that evolves into sillica rich phonolites, tephrites, and tephriphonolites

      • They probably just form over a very stable source and keep growing over a long time, Kilimanjaro is maybe still active and it began forming 3 million years ago. Nyamuragira is probably not a good analogue, it is a shield with a high rate of eruption probably the highest of any volcano that isnt in an ocean basin, you need slow rates to evolve silicic rocks. Africa moves but it is the slowest moving continent, so even a weak source stays active for a logn time, Kilimanjaro and Kenya are not actually in the rift either, they are intraplate volcanoes. Meru nearby is still active with historical eruptions, it is maybe the next in line to the throne.

        • Think this is the case for most volcanoes. The reason the yellowstone hotspot is so voluminous and long lived for instance is because it is under continental crust and therefore has a stronger ‘lid’ and more time to create complex lavas, and has also had a constant feed from the hotspot, faults and farallon subduction etc.

          Large oceanic volcanoes are clearly possible but they tend to just pancake all over the sea floor or shed their excess weight quickly due to gravity. Hawaii doesn’t tend to erupt much complex lavas because it’s constantly being supplied with fresh basalt and dribbles all over like a baby eating semolina

          • IIRC, a split in Farallon plate is also why Mt. St Helens is off-set from its kin. Isn’t there something similar for Somma / Vesuvius, almost a flank eruption of Campi Flegrei complex ?

            Appears so! Slab gaps do tend to create more complicated systems.

            My theory is that volcanoes that grow on the flanks of calderas share a deep source but not a shallow one – sometimes there’s a connection between the two, sometimes not. Kirishima and Aira is the only place I know of where this has been proven, though Sinabung and Toba share near identical chemistry too.

            In a sense, it’s not too different from Hawaii & Iceland’s volcanoes impacting each other or sharing/stealing magma!

  21. This is Pico Island in the Azores its around 50 km long.

    This is roughly the size and the shape of the Pele Patera lava lake on Jupiters moon IO. Peles basaltic lava lake on IO haves a similar size and shape to Pico Island. IO s lava lakes are enormous compared to anything we haves here on Holocene Earth. Kilauea and Nyiragongo maybe able to do one kilometer wide lava lake sometimes, yet thats nothing compared to IO s lava lakes. IO s largest lava lake is more than 200 kilometers wide. But Pele is IO s most thermaly active lava lake.

  22. “Salt and a squirt of Soda, please ?”

    No, not tequila, but their effects on subduction / melt etc.

    Full article is {snarl} paywalled but, IMHO, the press release is uncommonly detailed and well-written:

    The Connectivity of Multicomponent Fluids in Subduction Zones
    Fluids that circulate in subduction zones have a significant effect on magma genesis, global material exchange between the Earth’s interior and surface, and seismicity. The dihedral angle (θ)–the angle between two intersecting planes–holds the key to revealing the fluid connectivity and migration regime for a fluid-bearing, deep-seated rock in the Earth’s interior known as pyrolite–a rock mainly composed of olivine.

    Although H2O is the predominant composition of subduction-zone fluids, minor components in the fluid can have a dramatic impact on the wetting properties of olivine. This is evidenced in the dihedral angle between olivine and fluid.

    Salt (NaCl) and non-polarized gases such as CO2 are two crucial components of subduction-zone fluids that significantly affect the dihedral angle between olivine and fluid. CO2 is known to increase the olivine-fluid θ under conditions in which the olivine does not react with CO2. Whereas, a recent study showed that NaCl can effectively decrease the olivine-fluid θ even with a low NaCl concentration. NaCl and CO2 have opposite effects on the olivine-fluid θ, and this factor has inhibited researchers in their understanding of fluid migration in subduction zones.

  23. Baltis Vallis on Venus is 6800 kilometers long! and snakes its way around the landscape. This is the largest lava open channel in the solar system! its also a few kilometers wide. I wonder how souch insane thing can be formed, its freaking longer than the Nile! If it was formed by lava at all, likley is the correct substance as the flow features match lava exactly.

    Thats much much larger than any lava channel on Mars or IO, and likley larger than any flood basalt lava flow on Earth since complex life evolved.
    Baltis Vallis is volcanism on an insane scale, Earth did that only in the hadean

    • Is there any indication of age ? IIRC, impact cratering is a poor guide as there is a paucity of such below several kilometres diameter. Lesser bolides simply do not reach surface. The curious ‘rosette’ features may be evidence of air-bursts, or they may not. IIRC, current modelling does not convince…

      Would a ‘Chix’ be big enough to crack crust and allow frustrated up-welling to erupt ? Rebound decompression may be very juicy, ‘Pour Favour’…

    • Baltis Vallis Is the product of Venus thick litosphere that prevents the planet from loosing heat, the upper mantle overheats and flood basalts breaks out all over. Then the planet is semi dormant, the most recent small scale eruptions maybe erupted in 2009 on Venus. Venus is still active today, with small scale eruptions. Venus loose heat by numerous mantle plumes.

      It was long ago Venus did flood basalts, it does not have plate tectonics and does not vent its heat as easly as Earth.

      Earth is almost just the same size yet.. have movable tectonics, Earth is a bit more massive and perhaps haves sligthly more internal heating

      • I think the pixel resolution from 2009 was 1 km, so technically that instrument wouldnt be able to see the lava lake at Kilauea in 2018 if you placed it on Venus. Probably there are continuous active volcanoes and eruptions every year there, the only way to tell would be to have a visual image or if a flood basalt occurred, which like on earth are not especially frequent. Will be exiting all the new space exploration in coming years.

        It is possible the atmosphere traps so much heat during the resurfacing events that ambient temperature is near the melting point of basalt, so the lava flows can basically flow until theres nowhere to go.

    • Perhaps the extremely hot conditions on Venus makes its litosphere too dry and too elastic for tectonic plates, many plumes domed the litosphere and it then deflated plasticly forming a corona.
      Venusian geology is totaly Alien! A thick, yet deformable litosphere. Earths litosphere is thin and breakable

    • Mars haves almost identical volcanism and similar heat loss mechanism.

      But Mars is a much smaller body than Venus, its a smaller interior, and have cooled much more since formation. Its certainly much less active than Earth and Venus. The old side of Mars is as old looking as our moons.

      Still Mars is quite massive, much larger than earths moon, and its interior remains hot, the most recent lava flows on Mars are extremely recent looking flows on some of Mars plains. The most recent eruption coud be just a few million years old. And youngest mars meteors formed by magma 50 million years ago.

      Mars litosphere is certainly extremely thick, and is a great insulator, the core of Mars maybe close to 3000 C

      • Yes its insanely huge
        It even dwarf IO s very largest lava flows
        Still IO s basaltic volcanism is on venusian scale with some lava flows on IO

  24. When there is no significant volcanic activity
    Jesper: Volcanism on other planets.
    Albert: Iceland’s volcanic history and future
    Chad: Hawaii
    Tallis: Conspiracy theories and Chiles-cerro negro

    • Cerro Negro may be dangerously understudied but I can’t help but feel that of the South American volcanoes Apoyeque is an absolute disaster waiting to happen. Can already see it – plinian eruption, pyroclastic flows, tsunami…the lot. You reckon the Nicaraguan government could expertly mitigate?

    • I too would like more volcanism 🙁 the most significant eruption right now is probably Pacaya, doing what it always does. Like I said for Pu’u O’o or Theistareykjarbunga it is probably something that will only be impressive when it is totally over, no flood lavas there.

      Is a few large (for that area) quakes at Kilaueas summit but thats been going on since June, only the deep main chamber is inflating there so no eruptions yet 🙁

      Perhaps the calm before the storm

      • Icelandic / Hawaiian flood basalts are spectacular. But they do drain themselves out as the mantle cannot keep up with supply. Thats why Leilani and Holuhraun as well as Laki drained dry. Mantle cannot keep up

        Theistareykjarbunga style eruptions as well as the huge K observatory shield are fun because when they happen, they last for so very long. If a Theistareykjarbunga happens again, its likley that you will never be without active lava in your lifetime. The shield type eruptions are easier for the mantle to supply with magma when input rates match output rates.

        My largest dream is a Theistareykjarbunga sequence event in Grimsvötns caldera. That woud be quite an awsome sight.
        But something thats probaly very rare. The magma body is at 1,7 km depth under Grimsvötn and its recharging. I dont know the current state of Grimsvötns deeper system

        • Well if 2011 wasnt 1 km3 but 0.2 km3 DRE then its maybe not so unlikely for the next eruption to be similar, I dont know the eruptive rate of Grimsvotn but its probably high enough to have recovered from 2011 by now. Mauna Loa shows that just reaching the level of the previous eruption doesnt necessarily mean much though, it exceeded 1984 levels a decade ago but still nothing.

          • That is tephra, DRE is 0.2 km3 Albert said on a comment I made last post. If it was an effusive eruption it would have been a similar volume to Mauna Loas 1984 eruption, impressive for 1 week but not a flood basalt like Holuhraun.

            Maybe Grimsvotn has been a bit overestimated, its erupted only about 1.5 km3 DRE since 1900 which is probably less than Bardarbunga (probably at least 2 km3) and much less than Kilauea which has erupted about 7.5 km3. It makes sense, Kilaueas rifts are finite, once filled it erupts basically 100% – Pu’u O’o. Grimsvotns rifts are effectively infinite, its probably got multiple km3 of magma generated under it yearly but which will never get near the surface, same for all the frequently active Icelandic volcanoes, except maybe Hekla which isnt really on a rift.

            Tephra is pretty not-dense, if going by the 2011 ratio (4x)1.5×4 is 6, which is pretty close to the number for Kilauea, that is probably where the confusion started.

      • Right now the situation seems more or less stable at Kilauea, with only the deep magma reservoir inflation the chances of eruption are very reduced and this is a situation that could go on for several months, I think it is clear by now that this is no mantle surge, otherwise Halema’uma’u would already be swelling. There is always some chance that the deep rift spreading will trigger a dyke intrusion but for now things are not very promising.

        I am still waiting for the Pahala mantle surge to get to Kilauea, I guess 2021 is not a bad year for that to happen, we shall see.

        • I did notice that the stations are also moving east now, some of them very sharply, like the source of inflation is slightly southwest of Halemaumau.

          It has realistically only been about 2 years since the eruption ended, theres been about 0.5 km3 of magma generated in the plume and about half that can be expected to erupt at Kilauea maybe a bit more, but 0.3km3 is maybe barely enough to recover any leftover 2018 deflation that the collapse didnt get. It will probably take a few more years to have a sizable eruption, probably on the east rift, but a small summit eruption could probably happen within the next year, under the lake. Probably after that it will be business as usual, eruptions every year maybe like in the 1960 and 1970s.

          Given there are multiple angles on the summit inflation it should be possible to use the Mogi source model.

          • The source of inflation seems to have shifted sharply from between CRIM and AHUP to somewhere just east of OUTL. This is a very common behaviour, Kilauea has 2 favourite spots to inflate south of the caldera which seem to correspond to the ones active for the past ~3 months. Kilauea likes to shift between them, in the inflation before the 1967 eruption the centre of deformation went east-west back and forth between the 2 spots many times.

        • Likley the highest known magma influx for any single Earth volcano Kilauea is. Next eruption coud be in halemaumau ring faults or faults in upper parts of ERZ. The ERZ itself is slowly refilling

          But Kilauea is miniscule compared to Ra Patera / Pele Patera as examples on IO, Loki Patera is a magma sea.
          I hopes there will be a Curiosity Rover sent to Pele Patera. Tired of earths lazy volcs long ago :h
          I also wants an IO highrise satelite. But Jupiters radiation is a problem

          • Curiosity 3.0 driving to the edge of Pele Parera looking down at the raging lava sea. Huge fountains and big big waves roiling. Its makes nice tracks in the dark peles hairs and light sulfur frost snow. Its onboard magnetic field creates a little Aurora to shield itself from Jupiters radiation.
            That woud be a spectacular sight

          • Actually it is not likely to erupt much at a high elevation, probably most eruptions now will be east of Pu’u O’o, the area a bit west of highway 130. This area has begun to feel the effects of the 2018 dike and is steaming, but there has also been magma movement there since then, its a high risk area for sure though nothing imminent. Eruptions at the summit will probably be in the deep pit for the most part, Hector will probably correct me on a lot of this 🙂

            Given SpaceX and Tesla are frequently collaborated it isnt impossible that you could just send a heavily modified car or truck as a rover on a Starship later this decade 🙂 would certainly be much faster, and Io has about the same gravity as the Moon so a range of 100 km here (lead shielded tesla semi more or less) would be 600 km there, quite suitable I would think and its also a near vacuum so probably even further. Basically a 20 ton lead lined tank with a camera, rather cheap to make compared to a NASA rover, send 5 of them off to Io 🙂

  25. Its not much, but Pacaya has started erupting more significantly than usual. It has a flank vent that is erupting tephra, so this could be at least a sizable flow, more importantly Pacaya is very similar to Etna and its big eruptions are subplinian lava fountains.

    • Similar viscosity too.. with dirty fountains and mostly Aa rivers and some pahoehoe and tubes but NEVER smooth and fluid.
      Basalt with higher viscosity.
      Strombolian viscosity, and lava channels that dont have a shiney look

      But Masaya haves much much lower viscosity than Pacaya

      • One of the confusing things I have seen for Masaya is how little it actually erupts, its entire caldera is flooded in lava from two sizable shields since 1900 years ago but only 1 flow since the 1500s and basically nothing in the past few hundred years. Yet it has massive gas flux of all the types, fluid and long lived lava lakes, these indicate high magma generation, HVO have even directly compared it to Kilauea which is not a trivial achievement, and it also behaves quite similar to Ambrym. Kilauea and Ambrym both have had large rifting effusive eruptions since 1500 though, 1914 eruption of Ambrym was possibly even a flood basalt though it is very hard to find any maps of flows there.

        Seems the Managua rift must be pretty active. Masaya must have at one point been a bigger shield if there was 10 km3 of rock in the Masaya Tuff, perhaps that is its cycle, it grows a big shield then rifts, big basalt blast, then repeat. Its big eruptions seem to be similar in time to eruptions at Apoyeque, so maybe its a local tectonic trigger.

  26. Furnas in Azores is a dangerous volcano. While a sleepy and tired volcano. 1440 persons stil live in this caldera, thousands of persons visit every week. Furnas is capable of large VEI 4 s plinians and larger. Its full of gassy stale trachyte magmas. The year 1630 Subplinian killed over 200 persons. Furnas eruptions are very rare, but if something happens, it will be dangerous. ”Invisible” volcanoes like these are often the most hazardus.
    The caldera complex itself have done very large plinians before. The caldera is today a subtropical eden with small towns and a geothermal bath and large exotic garden. I visited this site in april 2017

    Saõ Miguel is not very productive in volcanic materials, its on a superslow transform fault spreading, and partial melting is small. Most Azorian volcanoes sits on leaky transform faults and hyperslow centers. Azores are indeed absoutley miniscule in magma production compared to Iceland and Hawaii, but they haves volcanoes too.

    The volcanoes gets full of gassy old stale magmas, and haves huge explosive eruptions sometimes.
    Both Furnas, Sete Cidades and Auga De Pau volcanoes are dangerous, a slow magma supply can form evolved old and explosive melts. Repost from an earlier post.

    • IIRC, the Azores’ submarine volcanoes were infamous for scaring the pants off sailing-ship crews. THUMPS & BANGS to rival whale-strikes, plus pumice rafts and ‘sulphur’ smells. Circumstantial evidence suggests the infamous ‘Marie Celeste’ abandonment took place in that area, at a time other ships reported lesser incidents.

      If you were already a tad paranoid due to your cargo of distilled alcohol in weeping barrels, and ‘Father Neptune’ began kicking the hull…

  27. Why LED screens should perhaps be banned?. Blue light is harmful for the eye and oxides the photorecptors, thats been shown in numerous studies led screens before. Increasing the risk for age related Macular Degeneration later in life, the leading cause of blindness.
    Led and screens emitts alot of blue light, some near UV, and I think led screens should be banned and replaced with technology that emitt more yellow white light. When you shine blue led lights on cells, it kills them.
    Retina cells cannot regenerate.
    Amber coloured sunglasses helps to filter out dangerous blue sunlight, as well as light from screens. But there is lots of things that we dont know of blue light.

    The sun is still the main source of dangerous blue light, but screens emitt alot of blue light at near violent frequency. The rise of LED phone screens and artifical HEV light been ligthing fast in just 10 years. But it also depends on how intense the blue light is. LED lights like screens are insignificant compared to ambient outside daylight of blue sunlight

    There is still alot we dont know about high energy visible light, but the animal and physical studies are enough to perhaps say that Blue Light is dangerous for the eyes?

    Blue light filter on phones is useless .. Because the back of the screen – the backlight, you cannot change the temperature of the phones backlight.

    • If these studies are saying anything.. then it is that you should use brown sunglasses on bright summer days or near the equator. Albert whats your opinion? on the ”evil computer screens” the first link is quite scary: do screens really kill our retina cells?

      I knows that ambient solar blue skies during summer.. are much much much much higher in blue output than any little screen. Soon 8 billion persons on the planet, but ”only 200 million” haves AMD

      Im cautious but skeptical to the blue light hysteria

      • The answer is probably yes, blue LEDs can be damaging to your eyes. I doubt that a screen held at a reasonable distance will do much, but you should avoid looking directly at an individual blue LED light. Tests do show that halogen lights are worse than LEDs, though. We have thrown away one of our christmas decoration which was mainly blue, bright LEDs, as a precaution. Normal LEDS with colour temperature up to 3000K are fine. Blue LEDs with colour temperatures of 7000K+ are best kept at a safe distance, and not looked at.

      • Albert what about phones and computer screens? are they frying the photoreceptors too? Im worried as I use my phone alot, as I live in my own apartment and cannot talk to parents everyday in person.

        The rabbit experiment with IPad s are scary knowledge. But do screen blue light, really harm our retina? ambient sunlight is faaar more intense on a blue sky

        When Im in your age, I will be blind ?

      • I think LED s should be instantly banned
        Screens also shown to damage retina in many animal tests.
        By year 2060 perhaps 2 billion will end up with Macular degeneration?

        My phone haves a blue light reducing filter, but its nearly useless.. as the
        LED back – light cannot be changed colour too. Technology is going way too fast, and the screen manufacturers simply cannot keep up with the health risks.. screens are only getting bluer and bluer as New ones comes out, not good.

      • Whats the colour temperature of a phone LED then?
        A phone is quite blue but with alot of white light. But the backlight is very blue

    • The turth is that I dont like the blue light from our screens at all.. its distasteful to look at and it hurts in the eyes at night
      Night – shift mode hardly makes it better.. you cannot do anything about the led screen backlight

    • But I think its time to replace Blue LED light screens with technology thats more friendly to the eyes. I can No more sit infront of normal screen without serious eye pain and potential damage

      • Have you heard of f.lux? It’s a downloadable software you can use on your PC. With that, you can adjust your colour temperature. Especially at night. Best of all, it’s free!

    • UV-A, -B and ‘-C’ are certainly bad for the eyes in excess, and slow loss of blue sensitivity with age accounts for ‘Old Dears’ generic ‘Blue Rinses’.

      But, if you’re below that age threshold, and you’ve not over-done your beach / ski / pilot etc UV, a check by High Street / Mall ophthalmologist should suffice.

      Provided there’s no gross problem requiring ‘referral’, they’ll probably prescribe mild-correction spectacles calculated as ‘Reading Glasses’.

      In passing, they’ll check for, diagnose and include correction for any astigmatism, which *also* skews your colour focussing, the blue worst, and is *not* corrected by ‘off the rack’ readers.

      A bank-note / document checker, geology lamp or ‘pet-pee’ finder should put out enough UV to deserve its safety warning. That’s its job.

      Conversely, the light-panels used to mitigate ‘Seasonal Affective Disorder’ (‘SAD’) are blue-rich –BUT NO UV– because serotonin levels need that nudge.

      IMHO, dumping LED seasonal light-strings because they include some visible-blue LEDs is total over-kill. Unlike UV-Rich halogen bulbs, visible-blue LEDs simply do not produce UV.

      ( IIRC, a lot of US blue LED strings are being dumped for ‘fashionable’ reasons associated with the recent election’s vitriolic politics and party ‘colours’… )

      • This was not a standard LED seasonal display. It consisted of overly bright LEDs which left afterglows in your eyes. There are limits and I was very happy to get rid of it. I am not concerned about blue backlight. It is pretty weak light. The lights to be cautious with are much brighter, and not that common. I also note that safety ranking in the US differs from that in Europe. This especially affects laser pointers.

      • Whats the colour temperature of a full IPhone led at Max brightness?

        Eye doctors and eye researches are concerned about our blue light exposure on the retina

        The rabbit animal study with screen light showed blue light can cause toxicity to retina photosensitive cells, which are irreplaceable. The theory is that if it’s toxic to animal models then it can be to human beings.

        • I think the colour temperature goes up to 5000 K but it s adjustable on an iphone. There should be a night setting which makes the colour warmer and is better at night.

  28. You haves to use amber coloured sunglasses when you are on phone or tv, our outside in a blue sunny day. But modern screens do emitt a signifikant ammount of blue light. Blue light slowly oxides your eyes photoreceptors thats not replaceable, or re – newable. This been shown in numerous other animal studies. In the future, I hopes for a total ban on LED light

    Its like this: Technology is going way too fast, and the screen manufacturers simply cannot keep up with the health risks.. screens are only getting bluer and bluer as New ones comes out, not good.

  29. You haves to use amber coloured sunglasses when you are on phone or tv, our outside in a blue sunny day. But modern screens do emitt a signifikant ammount of blue light. Blue light slowly oxides your eyes photoreceptors thats not replaceable, or re – newable. This been shown in numerous other animal studies. In the future, I hopes for a total ban on LED light

    Its like this. Technology is going way too fast, and the screen manufacturers simply cannot keep up with the health risks.. screens are only getting bluer and bluer as New ones comes out, not good. I myself dont like the blue screens at all.

    Comment witt my name written correctly
    Other comment was deleted on request

    • It is always a case that we find new ways that a product will be detrimental that were not apparent in initial studies, excessive use of the internet is a very relevant one, it is a warzone for mental health in a way nothing else ever has been and im going to hold myself to that.
      Most other ways of making bright light involve a high temperature, which both require and give off a crazy amount of energy which is far more quickly going to do you permanent damage than an LED. It seems you already have found a solution too, with brown sunglasses, they are quite common in sunny areas already.

      It is also maybe a good thing to try and focus less on what will happen in 30 or 50 or 70 years and what will happen within the next 5 years or less, imagine veing born in 1920 and trying to imagine what the world would look like in 2000 and everything that will happen before then, the average joe would never predict a second and bigger war, and a decades long armed rivalry between the US and Soviet Union which were allies, or all the wars subsequently fought in name of that rivalry, or the immense issues with climate change that were just a theory quite literally back then, or plate tectonics being real, I could go on. That is what 2100 will look like to us, it will be beyone anything we can comprehend, for better of for worse.

    • Intresting animal study on blue light: the rats eyes where damaged by the screens. 23% increased photoreceptor death by iPads. LED lights like phones emitt a conciderable ammount of blue light.

      Its time to replace LED lights
      in computer screens. The blue light damages and oxidizes the retina. Thats been shown in numerous other tests too.

      New safer screen technology needs to be developed.
      The Technology Giants are very very slow to react to the health risks Blue light have. They does not care, its all about money and trade, and getting out gadgets at huge numbers at low prices

  30. Chad perhaps since you seems to know alot of things.

    Azores seems to have a miniscule magma supply, compared to Hawaii and Iceland, example Iceland, its many times the entire Azores region in yearly supply?

    • Azores is probably not that low, the volcanoes have to reach sea level so are massive mountains. Probably all active islands in ocean basins have a relatively high supply, remember Hawaii is really a extreme example of a hotspot, based on activity levels I have doubts even Iceland and the plumes under Africa are as powerful as Hawaii, the magma flux rate there is over 1 km3 a decade, and probably at least half of the magma ends up erupting.

      Azores seems to do eruptive episodes, there were a lot of eruptions on land a few hundred years ago but none in recent centuries, maybe now is a low period of activity and will increase at some point in the future.

    • Yea Hawaii is an insane example of a Hotspot, Pūnahonu grew to around
      150 000 km3 In a very short geological time. If Hawaii was under a very slow moving oceanic litosphere, then we are talking about Olympus Mons X10.

      Still the Icelandic Hotspot is powerful with a third to little over a third of all subarial pleistocene volcanic output.
      With Hawaii being even higher.

      The African Superplume is huge too, but may not be
      as intense or hot centred as Hawaii is. In Hawaii a mammoth ammount of input goes into a very small focused arera. That creates these large x100 000 km3 oceanic shields.

      Iceland and Galapagos hotspots seems less focused and more spread out than Hawaii. Hawaii is very focused and very centred and long lived. Most other large plumes Burns out in large flood basalts

      • The thing is Iceland gets its very high percentage pretty much entirely from Laki and Eldgja.

        • I think both events were probably about the same volume, Eldgja extended further away from Katla as it continued, so probably what is visible is nearly all of it. Skafta Fires started at its end and worked backwards, and the long duration and visible nature of the activity in the glacier suggests it could be a considerable volume, which is not in the flow field. A hyaloclastite ridge trending with the fissures is starting to melt out of the glacier.

          Eldgja was a few years of activity, while the flow field of Laki was only 8 months, but the actual event was also a few years long if it extended to 1785.

          • Eldgja was acually Alkaline basalt, while Laki was Thoelitic Basaltic. Eldgja is the biggest alkaline effusive event in many thousands of years

          • Well Hawaii Arc submarine alkaline flows are far larger if they are holocene

          • There was an earthquake underneath Mauna Loa almost 50 km deep today. Normally they are settling quakes but this one was right under the summit.

            I also noticed a few deep Pahala quakes that have broken through that hard line in the direction of Kilauea, maybe that doesnt mean anything but I think 2021 will see Hawaii get its lava back one way or another 🙂

  31. Speaking of Hawaii, and remembering that original plume head has long-since been carried away and subducted, here’s where it went…
    Researchers discover ‘missing’ piece of Hawaii’s formation by Emilie Lorditch, Michigan State University

    sundry quotes:
    An oceanic plateau has been observed for the first time in the Earth’s lower mantle, 800 kilometers deep underneath Eastern Siberia, pushing Hawaii’s birthplace back to 100 million years, says a Michigan State University geophysicist.
    “Normally, you would see a pancake-shaped oceanic plateau created by the mushroom’s head followed by a dotted chain of islands created by the mushroom’s tail,” Wei said. “The Hawaiian Islands are the end of the tail but where is Hawaii’s pancake head?”
    “I spotted an unusually thick chunk of oceanic crust about 500 miles beneath the Earth’s surface,” he said. “The thickness of this piece of crust made it distinguishable, but it was still too thin and too deep to be easily found.”
    One hypothesis is that the Hawaii “pancake” broke into two pieces.

    One piece was part of the Izanagi Plate which subducted into the Aleutian Trench and disappeared about 70-80 million years ago. The other piece was part of the Pacific Plate and after it entered the Kamchatka Trench 20-30 million years ago, the heavy oceanic crust sunk deep into the Earth’s mantle later until Wei and his team spotted it.

    Sadly, the referenced Science article is painfully pay-walled…

    • Thats the original LIP oceanic flood basalt plateau from Hawaiis Hotspots first emergence thats been subducted. Looks like Hawaiis Cretaceous flood basalt been subducted into the mantle like all the older Islands will one day

    • They write that the plume first surface less than 106 million years ago, at the spreading ridge between the Izanagi and Pacific plates. Very interesting. But I note that this puts it at in the same location, and only a little later, as the origin of the Shatsky rise. There may be more to this story.

    • I’ve seen a few hypotheses across the internet of the original position of the Hawaii hotspot being anything from the Siberian Traps to the High Arctic LIP and the same for the Iceland plume. Not sure how the timeline adds up.
      It’s extremely unlikely that the Hawaii hotspot started out just at the edge of the Kamchatka trench so anything pre-Emperor would have/is being subducted.
      This website’s great – it shows that there’s been hundreds of LIPs throughout the eons:

  32. Looks like Hawaiis Hotspots first Cretaceous emergence was like Ontong Java Plateau
    ( possibely larger ) the original hawaiian plume head was thousands of km wide. That mushroom is long gone, and replaced by a smaller form. Since Pleistocene start Hawaii is undergoing another massive sourge in magmatic productivity, with Giants like Maui Nui and Big Island growing to a couple of 100 000 s of km3 in much less than a million years.

    • Plume head & tail model?
      Makes sense as there’s still active volcanics on the older islands – or is this just magmatic memory?

      • More of magmatic memory, the plume creates a very broad area of partial melting, maybe also related to the bulging and stretching of the Hawaiian Swell. Many lava flows occur over the ocean floor around Hawaii.

    • Seems to be a HUGE round caldera near hamarinn, just south of Bardarbunga ( 15 km wide ) absoutley enormous draining events forms souch basaltic calderas, New information for me

      • I have been looking at that, I think its just a basin, not a caldera. The hill that is on the east side of it is Gjalp, and the one that is on the south is under the Loki cauldron, which is where the 1910 eruption happened, I think that hill is from then and must show the orientation of the fissure.

        But Bardarbunga does have a very big caldera of its own, I think that is formed mostly in two eruptions, the first being Thjorsahraun which you know. The second, which I only found out about recently, was the Drekahraun lava flood 3200 years ago. Drekahraun is a maybe slightly above average lava flow in Veidivotn area but the eruption that made it also includes the lava flow of Burfellshraun which is down near Hekla and must have filled the Thjorsa valley to that point, so this was a 4th Laki-type event, and second from Bardarbunga in the Holocene. I also like the name, dragon lava, very fitting 🙂

        It also doesnt appear there is a caldera at Hamarinn, or at Thordarhyna, though the latter is maybe just eroded, it is on the edge of the glacier where that is highest.

  33. Hi Albert: while size and composition of a planetary body is important

    What woud happen if Earths core was made competely out of gold? Earths core but a liquid gold ocean down there.
    Instead of the liquid iron ocean.
    What woud happen if Earths core was made of pure gold? woud the entire core be liquid 6000 C in middle and 4800 C at outer core edge.

    Woud gold make a nice magnetic field?

    • If geothermal energy can be extracted from extinct volcanoes too, then that is really interesting. Hopefully they will find the heat they’re looking for.


    Still practicing on drawing, its pretty limited using Paint and online photoshop alternatives.

    Veidivotn 1477 eruption as it was entering the explosive phase, or alternatively as the explosive stage was dying out. It is not clear whether this eruption began as small eruptions which migrated downrift and became larger as at Holuhraun, or began at peak strength and declined back towards Bardarbunga as happened in the Skafta Fires. I imagine the plinian stage to be similar to the ashy tall lava fountains at Etna in its 2001 eruption, which was partly phreatomagmatic.

    For being such a large and relatively recent eruption it is hard to fine any detailed information on this event at all actually. But at 10 km3 of tephra it is the biggest basaltic explosive eruption in the recorded history of Iceland, and would have spawned a lava flood about twice the volume of Holuhraun if it was entirely effusive.

    • It’s really nice, those dark tephra charged fountains are impressive.

      Ever heard of Inkscape? That’s how I drew the Altiplano slice, and the Masaya Tuff. It is surprisingly easy to create intrusions, though I’m not so sure how it would go with a fire fountain.

      • I realised only just after posting that a much better and more directly comparable analogue is the early stage of the 1960 Kapoho eruption, voluminous flood lava and fissure eruption which became partly phreatomagmatic. I also found that there are actually lava flows and spatter cones inside the tephra vents as the eruptions waned but the last tephra cones are empty, so I think the eruption went downrift, theres a few tephra free flows down at Torfajokull, probably the last new vents.

        It was actually pretty easy to make this, I took a street view image on google earth and drew over it in paint… 🙂

        • So the last vents opened near Torfajökull. That could mean it actually fed most of Veidivötn. Torfajökull has a shallow reservoir made of rhyolite but that doesn’t mean it can’t produce large basaltic eruptions from deeper within.

          • Veidivotn lava is all tholeiite basalt of identical composition to Holuhraun, I dont know what Torfajokull is but being near Hekla where the basalt vents are all transitional alkali basalts probably the lavas at Torfajokull are much the same. It is lower elevation in that direction, about 500 meters lower than the end near Vatnajokull and 1500 meters below Bardarbunga.

            Veidivotn rift is probably much more established than the one which Eldgja and Laki erupted on and more conductive to downrift progression, it is probably very hot at depth with the thick crust and ductile with limited cooling of the magma. There have been at least two 10+ km3 DRE flood basalts there in the Holocene along with many smaller flows and tephra eruptions, while Eldgja is an only child and Skafta Fires is by far the largest of its family of 3.

    • Wonderful with these angry tephra laden fountains, probaly complete with ligthing too.
      Try to get in more detail. Your fountains are probaly a km tall there, at least the tephra laden ones. You are a good artist. 1477 must have been an impressive sight. Much bigger sight than Wolf 2015

      Try to paint Siberian Traps, CAMP and IO s volcanoes as well as Hawaiis future and as well as Theykjarebunga

      • Effusive fountains are about 50-100 meters high but the left side of the picture is much further from the viewpoint as the picture looks at the fissure with an angle.

    • Can you paint Siberian Traps or Camp vents? But the problem with that is, that huge fountains can look like smaller ones depending on viewing scale: but one haves to paint detailed to really capture the scale of kilometers tall Hawaii lava fountains along gigantic fissures. The spray can in windows paint is amazing for fountains

      • In all honesty it would look pretty much exactly like that picture, just add some ferns and your favorite Triassic animal 🙂

        I dont think you can actually have a hawaiian fountain several km tall, they max out at probably 500 meters. Look at the HVO page on the Kilauea Iki eruption, the 600 meter tall mega fountain is very ashy and forms a dark plume downwind, which is not present at all in the other pictures which show fountains 200 meters high or so. Etna tends to go subplinian when its fountaining episodes exceed 500 meters.
        Subplinian basaltic eruptions can generate large flows but the biggest flows probably happen after the fountaining dies down, like at fissure 8.

      • Then my constant everlasting day dreams are fooling me with fissures 500 kilometers long spewing out lava fountains, thats more than a kilometers tall.. basicaly long rows of Puu Oo 1985 fountains as rows as long as some countries. A real nightmarish spectacle that probaly only I wants to happen. LoL Be very happy Im an insignificant organism, that cannot flood the world with basalt. I wants volcanic armageddon everyday

        The Jesperian Scale of basaltic eruptions, better that I moves to IO

      • Fissure 8 and Holuhraun and even Wolf 2015 are simply too small for me you know 😸😆

        I wants something really really really Big basaltic to happen now, These mammoth rows of lava fountains that towers above low clouds, and the entire arera around it becomes a wast rootless lava sea

        Larger LIP vents coud form larger fountains, but they are also much harder to pressurize, so they becomes huge dome fountains instead after a while. But the opening for the 15000 km3 Rhajamundry flow must have been much much larger than Laki. We are still taking about huge ammounts of flowing out. Some CAMP intrusions can be followed for 1000 s of km and some lava flows for more than a 1700 km. So these are gigantic events, and I wants one to happen now. Im so silly, dumb and delusional and addicted to volcanoes..

        But there is no Major Superplume mayhem today in the mantle, unlike the Pangea Plumes

  35. Not good news for me, that seems to have a bad immune system, but very promising news, knowing what causes AD. For the off – topic VC Bar

    These gum disease bacteria are always found in alzheimers brains, and labratory mice develops alzheimers brain plaque patology when they given chronic gum disease. Emerging research continues to support the link between unhealthy gums and alzheimers plaque buildup in the brain. Bacteria is perhaps behind that disease
    The degree of alzheimers plaque co – exist with the level of gum bacteria enzymes in the brain. During Gum Disease bacteria jumps into the blood stream and cross into the blood brain barrier. Even the brain plaques themselves seems to form in response to bacterial infection. PAPER

  36. Looks like after 2-3 months the shallow system of Kilauea is back to inflating, the Uwekahuna tilt is going up and there are swarms in the rift conduits again. The rate of tilting seems to be the ordinary one (like the one of July-August 2020), but if the deep storage keeps inflating like it has been doing since early September then the supply must have risen compared to that of the rest of 2020. We will see what happens, I don’t want to get excited just yet.

    Meanwhile Mauna Loa keeps deflating which is weird, if it keeps going like this it must be related to the 2018 eruption at Kilauea.

    • Hawaii Hotspot is under a major sourge in magma supply since pleistocene started, since Maui Nui started to grow.
      The sourge is sourging again in Late Pleistocene knowing how large Kilauea already is underwater.

      Any Hawaiian volcano thats dominant over the Hotspot these days haves an avarge insane input supply. Kilauea erupted 1,2 km3 and intruded even more in 2018, its
      not going to be long for that to be Re – supplied. 0,2 km3 every year makes it just a few years to refill an Holuhraun in input. Around 0,4 km3 have been pumped in now since 2018. She was very active in 1400 s and 1500 s too

    • I believe that the deflation in Mauna Loa happened within a week or so, and since it has been rising again at the same rate as before the event (i.e. very slowly). I think the deflation was a settling event on the flank. The caldera kept shortening for longer but in the last few days also seems to have reversed again. early days though. There is some movement on the pali below Kilauea.

      • MOK shows continuing inward tilting, but it is true that the caldera distance shows inflation instead.

        Tiltmeters are more precise which means MOK should be more reliable, in theory…

    • I did find that based on GPS data the caldera has spread apart by 75 cm, between the end of the eruption and now. The south flank at the Hilina pali has moved 25 cm so 50 cm of inflationary extension has happened since fissure 8 stopped, quite a lot considering it was 30 cm over at least 3 years to trigger the 2018 eruption. The volume difference between the caldera and the eruption+intrusion is about 0.3 km3 DRE, not insignificant, I think very roughly every 10 cm on the cross caldera GPS (CRIM-UWEV) is about 0.1 km3 of input. Maybe it isnt as useful now but if it holds still then the supply is very high, higher than during Pu’u O’o even, and that doesnt include the about 0.2 km3 to reinflate the rift which has already completed in most areas.

      None of this really means an eruption is imminent as there is still little overpressure just yet, but its something to consider that its not going to take decades to recover like the Icelandic volcanoes after their lava floods. A year from now would be a year of high supply magma accumulation and the rift is not fit to absorb it all, its already full of magma, so the next eruption could be larger than expected or one of a series of eruptions in short succession like in the early 1980s.

      • Thats right, Kilauea will refill in very much in a heartbeat with 200 million cubic meters every year pumped in.

        Bardarbunga is totaly wrecked, having a lower supply and most of its supply goes into passive rifting. Bardarbunga is spent for our lifetime.
        But Kilauea is not.

        With a very high current supply and dominance over Mauna Loa, coud something like the Observatory shield grow on the Kilauea ERZ ?

        • I expect the Observatory shield is a complex structure. Pu’u O’o shield is really 5 structures, Pu’u O’o cone, Kupaianaha shield, E50-55 shield, TEB shield and E61 shield.
          Only Kupaianaha was given an actual name at that time because it was unexpected, but obviously it was just the first of many, probably if someone was to name the 1983-2018 eruption today it would just get called Pu’u O’o, or maybe Mauna O’o.

          Observatory shield was 10x a long, so could have been tens of superimposed shields each active for years at a time. The Aila’au shield is maybe the most recent of those, it was also to the east and along a bit of the east rift, so maybe even back then the rift was activating and drew the summit vent towards it. Pu’u Huluhulu also is a similar age, maybe a bit older, and is on the rift.

      • Working from those numbers, I come up with a potential eruption of moderate scale in April of 2021. Probably being very optimistic but lets see 🙂

  37. We did have a bout of tremor associated with a Quake near Pahala. 1.9 at 39.3

    Happy Thanksgiving from Mid West Georgia, USA, our menu for this afternoon.

    Roast Turkey
    Baby back Ribs with Whiskey, honey, BBQ sauce glaze
    Moist bread stuffing
    Mashed potatoes
    Sweet Potato Casserole
    dinner rolls
    Jack Daniels Fudge Pie
    Pumpkin Pie
    Whipped cream
    Vanilla Ice cream


    • As an englishman, what is the significance behind thanksgiving? It seems very close to/similar to Christmas.
      The meal sounds amazing though, it’s like a cross between Sunday dinner and a BBQ.
      Never had pumpkin pie but would love to try it.

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