The VC Bar

Welcome to the Volcano Café bar, a place for all things on or off topic and inane ramblings. There has been a need of late to find a place better suited to various theories, long comments and enthusiasm. This page will be less moderated than the main article pages and cleared out every month (this may change depending on use).

Have fun and don’t forget to tip the barman 😉

4,678 thoughts on “The VC Bar

  1. Europe awaits a new Spanish plume the beginning of next week: A heat wave combined with high pressure. This lets summer continue throughout the beginning of October.

    A sign for climate change. Usually we don’t acknowledge the effect much in everydaylife, because the change is steady and slowly. But if we look at the latest >20°C days in fall, they occur later and later with the years.
    This trend is accompanied by a) warmer nights in summer and b) warmer cold periods in winter. Weather patterns that decades ago brought heavy winter temperatures during winter, now bring relatively mild winter weather.

    • Weird how a tropical climate is defined by over 18 c all year around, If a place is 23 c all year around its tropical althrough that feels very cool and pleasant, althrough typicaly real tropics have Noon temperatures are up to 32 c everyday

      In our near Ice Age standards the 31 c equator is indeed quite cool compared to a greenhouse Earth equator that avarge perhaps 44 to 49 c .. a warning for us humans what coud happen If we dont regulate our massive cO2 outputs..


    The current situation in North Korea, a quite disturbing documentary how Kim Jong Un transforms the entire DPRK into a huge prison, defentivly the worst dictatorship at current today, this regime does not care at all about its citizens, Infact the Kims starves them which is unlike any other tyrannical states today.

    The Kims also arms the DPRK with nuclear weapons to prevent other states from toppling them. Its all spines outwards towards the world and inwards on the population for DPRK

    • spectacular for soure, remebers these early Puu Oo events from similar old videos that volcano video productions did

      • It’s really hard to find footage of the fountain stage of Pu’u’o’o.

  3. That one at 4:00 with the many irregular vents gushing out at all angles is my favorite. I think it might have been E 12, the last eruption of 1983. That eruption also made an intrusion down to near the 1977 cone, it nearly erupted too as steaming fissures were seen. The longest flow flowed over the new faults in one place too.

    • Interesting. A bunch of these fountaining episodes did have lateral dike intrusions at the same time.

  4. East storm at Baltic Sea: Usually winter storms come from west and do heavy Northwest to Southwest storms. This time there is a storm with eastern wind directions that push the water of Baltic Sea towards the east coast of Jutland and the whole coast of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern.

    A map of Danish Weather office:

    All read areas along the coast get water levels more than 1m above normal sea level. There are no significant tides in the Baltic Sea. The high water level is going to persist for two days until the wind changes:

  5. Regarding the present situation at Kilauea, it seems that there could be a similar situation as in the early part of the 19th century. The Kealaalea flows and 1823 eruption seem to be from the same crack, coming from the summit. However the Kamakaia flows do overlay the Kealaalea flows where they meet and yet were still present in 1823. It seems there were two rifts open at the time together with one beginning at Halemaumau probably with a lava lake at the summit, and another being from the SWRZ connector itself which came from the Kamakaia segment. The earliest stage might have been from the SWRZ and was a long intrusion from the connector down to the Black Cone, maybe the first eruption there in a while and was small at the end of a mostly intrusive event probably in the latest 18th century up to 1810. This dike would then stay open and intermitently erupt over the next decade, culminating with the Kamakaia eruption itself which was probably in the late 1810s. At the same time the summit was active and probably filled in rapidly between 1796 and 1810 similar to the past few years. At some point it started intruding the SWRZ cracks directly at shallow depth like happened a century later at Mauna Iki, first in a very similar manner but then with a full blown drainout in 1823, which seems to have put an end to all of the SWRZ activity, probably a combination of raining the lake and perhaps also an ERZ intrusion.

    The alternative which could be interesting to consider, is that the Kamakaia Waena eruption was actually after 1823, and happened when the lake had recovered somewhat prior to 1832 or even after that just before 1840. This may have some support as the magma filled rift would have evolved in those years and this is what is seen at that eruption, and small scoria vents in the Koae fault zone are dated to the same age range and which are best aligned with the Kamakaia fissure swarm. All that is considered as ‘certain’ by HVO is that the Kamakaia Waena eruptions all happened after 1790, and before 1868. So this interpretation is not implausible by any means although it doesnt have anything directly supporting it in the literature either.

    So I guess, maybe to backtrack on somethign I said before, the next intrusion there might be mostly just that, with only very small or no proper eruptions, like in 1961. But if the ERZ doesnt wake up soon then that will not be the case for long, and much of the Kau desert could get a resurfacing.

    • Interesting is the comparison to Mauna Loa’s SWRZ. There eruptions can be a lot more voluminous than at Kilauea’s SWRZ. But they have in common that eruptions can move quickly from the summit to SWRZ.

      Is Kilauea’s SWRZ going to change with growth of Kilauea? One day in future Kilauea will grow to 4000m above sea level, if the architecture of the island can bear this.

      • Mauna Loas SWRZ is like Kilaueas ERZ, it is its dominant rift zone. But Mauna Loa is also very topographically prominent so its NERZ, which is more like Kilaueas SWRZ, also does large eruptions it just isnt active along all of its original length anymore, except in very rare circumstances.
        Basically the rift zones of Kilauea and Mauna Loa are flipped respectively as to which direction is the dominant one.

        Interestingly, and I still dont know if this is coincidental or not, but in both volcanoes the longer rift zone is also offset from the caldera and erupts alone, while the shorter rift zone trends directly into the caldera and erupts together with it…

        I would expect Kilaueas SWRZ to be similar to this if it ever reaches the height of Mauna Loa, but it will probably not be the same, as Kama’ehuakanaloa will likely be above sea level by then and obstruct Kilaueas spreading in that direction. But then, it is not really very certain what will happen that far, or even how long that will take. It might be in as little as 100,000 years or in more than half a million. The extreme height of Mauna Loa might also be a result of its age and decline, it is not generally erupting as intense as it once was even if it does get intermitent revivals, and so eruptions are mostly stuck on land where many large eruptions at Kilauea empty significant volumes offshore especially those on the ERZ. Probably between 10% and 20% of Pu’u O’o, nearly 1 km3 at the high end, ended up in the ocean. In 1960 and 2018 the volume was more than 50% ended up below sea level. In 1950 and 1868 Mauna Loa eruptions a large amount of lava also ended up below sea level but these are the only cases this happened and neither eruption was close to as large as 2018 even if extremely intense. Only a few eruptions from Mauna Loa have actually even reached the ocean historically, its just hiden by how crazy 1950 was to do it 3 times within a day… 🙂

        • Maybe the comparison was a bit wrong, because Kilauea has rather the lifecycle of Mauna Kea than of Mauna Loa. If we look at the historical eruptions Kilauea did more random eruptions with very different types, some large, some small. But the rate was usually not as high as Mauna Loa. 1950 Mauna Loa reminded to a Laki lava flood. In 22 days it had a volume of 0.38 cubic kilometers.
          The 2018 LERZ eruption was an exemption that it came close to Mauna Loa’s style of eruptions. It lasted 124 days and had a volume of 1,5 cubic kilometers. It was very different to Puu Oo’s longterm eruption which appears to be more typical for Kilauea’s eruptions (long endurance of eruptions, but relatively low-moderate rate in relation to Mauna Loa).

          • Mauna Loa has got a lot of its surgace covered by pahoehow, it also spends a lot of time erupting slowly like Pu’u O’o. Historical period is a little unusual as far as things go af MaunaxLoa, way mors intense volcanism.

  6. Yesterday and today Earthquakes escalate again. Currently they focus on 155.3° West. It looks like the middle SWRZ is going to get the next eruption.


    The food guidelines in the west are an absolute disaster

    The food guidelines are an absolute joke in the west world. Here is a fantastic very good hour long documentary with doctors explaining how wrong the western diet advices are. The reason they say natural fats are dangerous is so they can sell their junk food carb products it’s the truth.
    And this flawed research is also the shameful dogma being pushed in universities as the grain industry pushes its flawed science there too. The truth is that we need to skip all processed carbohydrates and sugar that damage the arteries through sugar glycation. Sugar and Refined crabohydrates cause heart disease.. not saturated fat. ( the food guidelines are result of coperate capitalism that only wants us to eat junk food )

    We have been eating saturated fat and meat for millions of years in perfect health. Eat all non-processed foods that do not affect blood sugar much. We need a new food pyramid that is low carb, based on natural fats and healthy vegetables and grass-fed meats and lots of fish. We are becoming heart diseased and senile from our sugar carb western diet. But that sugar industry will never agree.

    For over a hundred years now, we have been urged to stop eating nutritious butter, tallow and lard, filled with the vital fat-soluble vitamins A, D, K2, b12 and STABLE saturated fat. Fats that we have eaten for millions of years. The fat that is in our mother’s breast milk. We have been persuaded to replace it with factory-made sugars, seed oils and fake margarines that are completely alien to us as a species and consist of unstable unsaturated omega-6 fats that bind, oxidize and inflame our cells and mitochondria.

    What has happened? Obesity, diabetes and all associated heart diseases have exploded in the Western world, proportional to the intake of sugar and Refined seed oils. Several generations of experts and professors who rule our academies have invested their entire life’s work in the paradigm that fat makes us fat (wrong), that saturated fat is especially dangerous (wrong), and that cholesterol is dangerous (wrong). A trillion dollar industry has grown up around medicating the world’s population for life for diseases that are completely reversible and easily avoidable if you only eat human food. All health institutions have long been based on the premise that saturated fat and meat are dangerous. Would they turn 180 degrees and admit that they were totally incompetent and that the doctors and researchers who claimed the opposite and were hunted, mocked, excluded were right?

    The power to health lies in our own hands and if you want to get well, you can’t go and wait for those who profit from our illness to tell us how to get well.

    I started LCHF 3 years ago and stopped all processed food 4 years ago and have never felt better. Lifelong migraines, stomach problems, eczema, dandruff etc. will soon be completely gone, but it heals slowly, the body has to replace all the cells. I encourage everyone to read up and test for themselves…

    • The market only wants us to eat their junk food products .. so a few years ago I skipped the western sugar laden trash diet .. for an ancestral diet and I feel much much better and have gotten controll over my blood sugar.

      The doctors … ( most of them ) they dont know .. beacuse they never learnt this in the first way.

      We seriously needs a New food pyramid in the west

    • And absolute disaster is the food guidelines in Europe and America and in most parts of the western world .. its an absolute disgrace almost is pure fascism how the market wants to cram us full with their Refined products, this is a good documentary that acually says the truth.. and with PHD doctors that dares to say the truth …

    • My New food guidelines is unprocessed food

      Unprocessed meat souch as grass feed beef, unprocessed fish, unprocessed vegetables, and crickets in pan and seaweed and lots of nuts

      Woud be very good If more doctors and most important if the cooperate thugs coud understand this one day

    • The human biology is tolerant to a large variety of food. But it is not built/evolved for the “Brave New World” artificial food and medicine that the profit maximizing industries supply. Therefore it’s a risk to rely too much on artificial sugar, protein, vitamins, … which are rather made for profit and not for humans’ needs.

      Also too much sugar is not healthy. In natur you don’t find as much sugar as in supermarket. Added to this sugar has become cheap. There are many ways to produce cheap sugar and add it to cheap industrial food. People eat a lot of sugar without noticing it.

      • Exactly we are eating ourselves To death on Refined crabohydrates
        That is the cause of heart disease ( sugar glyciation) that blocks the arteries

        It have nothing at all to do with saturated fat. Infact meat and fat are probaly the ideal human diet

        Most doctors gets it wrong

        • A problem with too much sugar is the risk to early get Diabetes. Better eat less sugar and be able to eat some sugar until the end …

          No one would voluntarily eat the sugar that is inside a Red Bull, but it has become a foolish trend. Some people nearly live from this poison with lots of sugar. If we drink a coffee, we can controll how much sugar we add. But if we buy an Energy drink or Coke, we have no choice.

      • Yes sugar inflames the arteries causing colesterol to stick to that surface and the arteries gets narrower and narrower. That is the cause of heart disease..

        It haves nothing to do with fat .. healthy fat that we eaten for millions of years

        Sadely .. almost No doctors know that, since they learnt the wrong theories that the crazy food guidelines says are ”correct” Its incredibley how we are being lied to by these greedy capitalist intrests. My own goverment and local doctors are all lying…about this .. very sad indeed, and in the US the food guidelines are even worse

        Western food guidelines are the worlds largest health crimes and real ongoing conspiracy

        • There’s ‘saturated fat’ and there’s saturated fat… it’s not quite right to say ‘saturated fat isn’t dangerous’ but it is true that you can eat fats and be healthy. A pat of butter from a truly grass fed cow is not the same as butter from a cow that is given supplementary feed made from soy/maize/wheat/palm oil. Spain eats absurd amounts of pork and the lack of expected heart disease was a mystery – until you take a look at the kind of pigs they were eating, ie ‘artisanal’ often acorn-foraging free range breeds. Their body fat is soft and translucent, an entirely different thing. It was a shocking revelation to me, that so much ‘Western’ disease was not just down to meat eating, but the eating of animals that had been fed exactly the sort of things we were warned not to. Eat sick animals, end up sick yourself.
          With cholesterol, it’s very very much down to the *type* of cholesterol and yes, we make the bad stuff as a reaction to eating bad things. Trans fats, palm oil based fats… Refined seed oils aren’t the culprit if they’re of high quality. Trans fats are supposed to be banned in the US and much of the world now but were everywhere until the 90s
          You do still have to beware saturated fat. Saying it’s not the issue is a red herring – the issue is that you *can* eat natural fats, even animal fats, but the animal fat isn’t *supposed* to be that saturated! It can be as rich in omega 3 and 6 as fish, if the feedstuff isn’t junk feed.

          • Yes grass feed beef is the best beef

            And grass feed butter.

            Althrough its good to limit meat as its very resource taking even If its healthy

            Overall avoid all processed foods

    • Overall a its a very good documentary that explains the truth.. the food guidelines and health guidelines are an absoute disgrace in the west world ..

      Its not science at all that made the food guidelines, this is pure market capitalism that created the modern food guidelines based on flawed
      ”fear of fat” and that we should have sugar and ultrarefined crabohydrates as base food. Sometimes it feels like the market wants to kill us all ”11 servings a day of white pasta”

      Thank the Nordic gods that I gave up western diet .. a few years ago, now I eats what we ate 120 000 years ago

      • Here in the west world we needs competely Re – think the whole food and healthcare system .. because its dead wrong .. and been since WW2

        No you do NOT get heart disease from saturated fat that we eaten for millions of years. We humans works best on meat, but the worlds population is way too large for everyone to be eating that

        It is incredible how the sugar and grain industry have been allowed to manipulate the entire worlds healthcare and food systems

    • These greedy intrests explains why I was only learned to eat bread and white rice in Elementary school.. stuff thats basicaly junk quality and turns into pure sugar .. its a very good documentary

      The food guidelines are a lie . .. almost everything that we learns about food and health in the west world .. its dead wrong and needs to be Re – thinked

  8. Mexico’s east coast got a Category 5 hurricane, can possibly also cause fluvial movement of volcanic materials:

    El Nino Periods often produce strong eastern pacific Hurricanes. Since late summer we’re entering a period of El Nino which shall have the peak around November to January. The strong hurricane Otis can be a first sign of more weather disasters to follow. Often an El Nino increases global temperature temporarily, so it may help to see the distant future development of climate change some years before. El Nino Report and Outlook:

  9. Orcas spotted in Hawaii outside Oahu .. but what are they doing there? Hawaiian waters are incredibley clear and poor in nutrients, basicaly a watery desert, the humpbackwhales birth their calves there .. but there is nothing for them to feed there, they feed in Alaska later

    What are the Orcas doing in Hawaii? These blue waters are not very fertile compared to Alaska and Iceland as example so probaly meager hunting grounds


    Basically the maps of Vermante Island, which is located at these coordinates:
    ⁦28°09’06″N⁩ ⁦30°26’52″W⁩

    What is interesting about is is that it has a big caldera at it, unusually large for a effusive volcano. The reasoning to this is that it is actually made of multiple calderas that eventually join to form one giant caldera complex. The majority of them is perhaps collapse calderas, all of which formed when massive amounts of magma drain out to the two southern rift zones (which technically are two distinct ones).

    Now, there are four rift zones. The northern rift zones are not really energetic, but make up for in volume, as more commonly or not, they form shields. The northern area in between the rift zone contrast them, as the eruptions are usually small and short-lived, but very frequent. To the southern areas, there are at least three areas of constant activity, with the southernmost of them being younger, appearing sometime in the mid 1400’s, from a recent caldera collapse. Then are the southern rift zones and, unlike the northern rift zones, go underwater and mostly effect the vents within the caldera itself. It very much does what Kīlauea does, except more active and can be capable of producing fairly large lava flows (with the largest at the lower SE region in 1703, which pumped out more than 4 km³ of lava, but most are in the ocean).

    Today, the volcano is very active, thanks to its high supply rates coming from the Great Meteor hotspot (or at least where I think it is) and is about 1.9 million years old. I could add on that it had so much of a supply rate it could’ve been theoretically active for longer than Stromboli. So that is the volcano right here…

    • Wow so beautyful and a structure thats quite unlike any other major shields on Earth today closest analouge maybe Galapagos and some pacific arc shields in structure. Vermante Island is clearly an immensely powerful volcano with souch large calderas so magma stoorage is probaly gigantic here ( what kind of event formed the larger outer caldera? was that an explosive event like Ambryms major caldera collapse? ) this is defentivly a monster volcano with larger eruptions than most other shields on Earth, I imagine its being capable of Laki sized eruptions and basaltic plinian eruptions as well, its a mean mix of Ambrym, Masaya, Fernandina in one spot and much bigger too. This is one of your best maps yet .. woud be fun to have a 3D generation of it .. magnificent volcano, the outer caldera is almost it is Ionian in scale. I guess Thoelitic basalt for a volcano as powerful as this one, highly fluid and 1200 c

      ( planetocopias ) Lyr thats also an excellent Super Earth concept with 100 s of tours it also have big shields volcanoes with broad slopes althrough thats a competely another level of geological activity with 7 Earth masses as world concept, yeilding arc and hotspot volcanoes many 100 s of km wide in many cases.

      Well Vermante Island on Earth is located close to the latitude 30 s so probaly mild and pleasant tropical lowlands and the higlands will be cold and frequently covered in snow. The highest ridge plateau on the caldera probaly haves a Glacier I guess feeding many streams, during the Ice Age the whole summit was peobaly Ice filled, but frequent volcanism removed those glacial signs. The Lowlands are likley to be TOURSIT TRAP hot in summer and warm – mild in winter like an gigantic Bermuda filled with rich pepoles properties and perhaps even high end high rises and hotel blocks and their sail boats and severely plauged by Atlantic Hurricanes in autumn, its also a good stop for sailors comming up from the carribean before they sail over to the Azores and later UK. Vermante Island Is probaly a british colony today thats still owned by them since a few 100 years back, in WW2 the Island waters was plauged by Hitlers submarines sinking allies merchant ships just offshore as they ly in ambush.

      Reminds me strongly of a huge version of Ambrym so perhaps is lava lakes in some of the intra caldera cones but visiting them woud be hard in that thin air tired of walking

    • 5250 m should probaly be glaciated perhaps, but I also know that the snow line is the worlds highest at high 20 s latitude so probaly will be bare and without snow so correct mapping
      But your mountain will not avoid seasonal snow in the highlands, and probaly falls heavy at the summit and in the caldera , while the lowlands remains t shirt weather all year around , same latitude as canaries but with milder summers

      I confuse New England hotspot with bermuda area, while this is just below the Azores in reality, so the Island will probaly be portugrese or spanish in belonging and so no mass tourist trap perhaps like Islands to the west

      • Well I confused Great Meteor hotspot with the New England hotspot so tought your monster Ambrym was located in the west atlantic

      • Ooo now I see a glacier on the map there is probaly a shadow in the caldera there so Ice all year around, and in winter it woud recive very deep snow the caldera from northen low pressures frontal systems, perhaps okmok caldera and aniakchak in deep winter is similar what Vermantes summit woud look like in winter

        Hurricanes wont be a problem in the cooler subtropical waters of the Canary Current that flows there

    • Very Impressive.. Ambrym 2.0 minus most of the pyroclastic history it have and another geological setting here.

      A winter satelite shot of this one woud see a green oval with dark lava flows capped by a white snow oval in the interior of it with vigorous steam plumes drifting east

      • Well, there might be some pyroclastic history, it might be minor compared to the ratio of lava flows, perhaps due to perhaps past glaciation. In the same note as to why there is only a few glaciers at the NE edge is simply because everywhere else is either very little precipitation or it is just really volcanically active (I.e. melt the snow) or geothermally active. The tall mountainous northern area could provide a Etna-style snow cap all year round, but maybe only proto-glaciers on there. Heck, any evidence of glaciers from the Ice Age would’ve either be non-existent (due to intense volcanism there at the time) or buried by lava flows.

      • There woud be heavy seasonal snows at the summit at least… its rather very tall, woud be good skiing

        And then you can drive down to the lowlands and pretty much be in t shirt at Noon in january

    • You may also add some tuff cones in the seas lateraly with the rift zones as slopes extends far underwater and shallow offshore pheratomagmatic eruptions woud be common too. Souch palagonite tuff rings will be densely populated

    • This is a monster volcano really and probaly woud do the largest basaltic eruptions of any ocean Island on avarge if it existed, the summit caldera far exceeds any other real life mafic calderas at current, it formed by drainage of giganyic tabular magma bodies where many 10 s of km of magma was removed from the caldera and the plateau sank… the rift zones during souch events woud be insane sights with erupting lava curtains 10 s of km long feeding massive pyrocumulus clouds the shallow offshore rift may erupt too during souch a large event with a long row of Grimsvötn 2011 looking pheratomagmatic columns in the water, seen from offshore it woud be a sight of armageddon! much bigger than Thjorsahraun, but souch large shows woud be very rare.

      The Islands older lower warm
      subtropical parts are likley very densely populated, so it woud be a high risk volcano IF it existed so a ”decade volxano” worth of intense monitoring

      • Knowing the diameter of the caldera its possible to store many 1000 s of km3 of basalt depending how thick the sills are inside it, so much bigger than any other basaltic caldera systems. Your volcano haves at moment a very high supply so is likley well vented and rarely go armageddon. The scale of the caldera is magnificent and some of the intra caldera cones are as big and bigger than many cascade volcanoes, some of them maybe lava shields that sit below the glacier ridge.. perhaps its little like having an Erta Ale inside the caldera constantly oozing lava.

        The caldera must be a magnificent sight.. cloudy and gloomy with sunlight shining through cloud gaps and litting snow packs.. kind of like Icelandic highlands and sometimes massive cloud walls flows over the caldera walls and fills it

        Stark diffrence from the warm subtropical lowlands that are packed with pepole

      • I would theorize that it might be dangerous, with the potential for lava flows on its rift zones, but the majority of the activity is contained within the caldera for now, forming due to multiple collapses over a long period of time…
        The composition of the volcano is basaltic, but a hotter variety (say 1300°C to 1500°C) as its very large supply (WAY more than even the Hawaiian hotspot) allows that, maybe even komatiite might exist, even to the present day in the lava lakes that are currently building up the shields. However, the taller and steeper northern might erupt nearly only basalt as it has its own magma chamber that is getting less of that supply then the rest of them.

        • Then the lavas will be incredibley fluid indeed at over 1300 c you breaks down most of the sillica chain polymerisation that acts as plastics making it as fluid as water, so woud look like bubbling iron slag at 1500 c

          Most of the polymerisation is already gone in Hawaii that is VERY fluid in Halema’uma’u today anyway

    • This is probaly a super madeira.. but even more green and rainy and little warmer overall, woud be packed with pepole the lowlands having souch a friendly climate, but the volcano is not always friendly .. and will not always be ..

      Great maps.. you do

      But the South Atlantic volcano you did last winter is even more powerful I think

      • Very beautyful thank you, next is a 3D view althrough the elevation maps works for that

      • Hahaha whats the Islands population?, reading real history it should be pretty packed If you looks at other subtropical atlantic Islands

      • Is this a fictional map? Still, that looks realistic. A huge Mauna Loa-sized shield in the middle of the Atlantic!

        • Mauna Loa is bigger But this one is huge too, and this one probaly have done larger eruptions

          • The whole island is something like 80 x 50 km wide and its caldera 40 x 25 km wide – roughly the size of Maui or a little bigger than Reunion Island, maybe.

            You’re right that it’s not as big as the Big Island, but its caldera size puts anything in the state Hawai’i to shame (except maybe Kaua’i’s Olokele Member). Not to mention it’s 5250 m (17,224 ft) tall – this puts even Mauna Kea (4207 m/13,796 ft) to shame. However, it’s possible that Haleakala was probably at least that tall while it was directly on top of the Hawai’ian plume approximately 1.2 Mya.

  11. Kilauea currently does both earthquakes towrads SWRZ and Hi’iaka crater. At Hi’iaka crater 1968 an eruption occured:
    “The August 1968 eruption was noteworthy—at the time—for several reasons: (1) No other fissures documented in written records had opened so far west on Kīlauea’s east rift zone; (2) the active vents were the northernmost eruptive fissures along Kīlauea’s east rift zone in at least 550 years; and (3) the fissures erupted the smallest volume of lava of any known Kīlauea eruption.”

    This happened some years before the SWRZ did its 1970s eruptions. Can an active SWRZ facilitate upper ERZ eruptions in the area of Hi’iaka?

    • Both the Hi’iaka eruptions and SWRZ eruptions 1968 to the 1970s happened when Mauna Ulua paused and the Middle ERZ was a bit blocked. Maybe there is now a somewhat comparable situation since Puu Oo is shut off and the upper ERZ has some advantage.

  12. 🤣🤢poor dogs they are de – evolving into useless blobs due to cruel human breeding. Many modern highly breed dogs have smaller brains and poorer health than their magnificent Wolf ancestors, LoL wow .. a daschound is a disgrace compared to the Magnificent Wolf ancestors

  13. Is this a hole in Jupiters upper ammonia coud deck? looks quite creepy, wait its even a hole in the brown ammonia sulfur clouds that sit below the ammonia Ice layer so this is looking pretty deep into the atmosphere.

    • There should be a water cloud layer at 5 bars that sit below the upper two cloud layers and thats been confirmed by Juno, perhaps this is a downdraft thats heating up the air and evaporating the clouds, like at jupiters hotspots but it does not look like that either, it more resembles the brown barges on Jupiter, but smaller and more round.

  14. Pardon me, but is anyone else weary of ceaseless comments & speculation about Grindavik and Iceland in general? Please, Dragons, a whole world of volcanoes awaits our interest & attention. How about Japan, islands of calamities, past and future? Or a tour of the Ring of Fire. Or what will likely erupt in the next 10 years, 50 years, 100 years, that most, if not all of us will miss? Whatever you think.

    • There is a bit of a thing for Icelabd on this forum. It has reasons that probably go back to Holuhraun or perhaps Eyjafjallajokull. I agree it is a bit overwhelming.

      I think now that it is pretty clear an eruption of any significance (or really anything at all) is not immediately upon us it is a bit pointless to keep obsessing over it. For those who want to see lava Kilauea is doing pretty much exactly what everyone is speculating is going on under Grindavik only at Kilauea there is no speculation, only waiting until something bursts and the red stuff is on the surface in an hour.

      I guess, if Hunga Tonga Hunga Ha’apai is a good model then high VEI explosive caldera forming eruptions dont give much of a show, which is why that subject isnt as often a topic of discussion. Anything close enough to see something is too close, and its all over in a few hours. And depending on the location, many casualties may result from those hours…

    • That is typical for volcanoes – as pointed out here, they are like cats. Sometimes completely unexpected, at other times refusing to turn up. Yes, we were planning to move on. Iceland has the most watchable eruptions on Earth, and so it is not surprising that they attract a lot of attention.

    • I totally agree. In recent days, fumes from the geothermal power plant have attracted more attention than the Ulawun eruption. People were also evacuated due to this eruption. I really like predictions about caldera-forming eruptions, despite how wrong they may be. I also like to observe explosive eruptions and I don’t need live cameras for that. In case of the Ulawun eruption, it was possible to observe it almost live from a satellite. Later, photos from the ground and from the air appeared. For me it is much more interesting than looking at seismograms and watching the noise of waves, wind and bulldozers building a wall.

    • Indeed VC was formed because of Icelandic eruptions so they will always be special for the community and a great intrests for many here, Iceland is close to many readers here too so feels more relevant for them than more remote volcanoes thats feels off, but yes as you say.. the most Impressive induvidual volcanoes are the Hawaiian Giants. But Iceland is a huge treat for many and specialy now when Porbjorn is about to burst a Krafla fires, both Hawaii and Iceland are extraodinary really in their geological offers and scenery sights 🙂

      I like them both defentivly .. they are both incredibley beautyful, scenic and massive and have their geological uniquenesses althrough Hawaii is indeed unique among induvidual volcanoes with the mass and productivity over short timescales and Iceland massive too, defentivly giant as a whole area its monsterious that plateau in just 14 million years. Iceland overall geologicaly coud be the most unique spot in the world

      Sadely Im very injured and feels less and less intrest in volcanoes, and anything at all really, feels like Im not intelligent enough at all to even contrubute to VC anymore, I guess my Osteomelytis is really wrecking my health now loosing all my capabilities, but antibiotics are my best friends and its at least not getting worse

      But I do have an upcomming VC article but its not done yet, it needs to be keept working on as an uploaded VC draft thats in pendling stage. Im so poor at writing so needs to be keept working on before posting it .. and I dont think Im allowed to send in a newer version

      • The upcoming article has gone through the initial edits and it is looking very interesting.

        • Doing the last spell corections and word improvents.. will be fun
          Will be next saturday if svartsengi does not erupt

  15. Coincidentally my wife asked me yesterday, why are you so fascinated and solely focused with Iceland and volcanos when there is a whole planet to observe. My answer was that it sings to me in a way that the rest of the planet doesn’t. It must be something about an island, with glaciers, snow, auroras, eternal days and eternal nights, a charming and lovely friendly folk, barren landscapes, countless volcanos, active and dormant, visible history, and a forum like this. I guess my love for Iceland isn’t unique and the people who frequent this site are for the most part awesome.

    Mike, so in answer to your question, I can only apologise and say no I am not weary and my cup is full but your mileage may vary 😉

  16. : ) Here are perhaps the strangest planetary interior in the solar system! the materials they are made of are not strange at all .. But its the whole compositon thats feels strange compared to our Rocky Earth and rest of the inner stoney planets. Uranus and Neptune are litteraly Unearthly! you you all know how Jupiter and and Saturn where pretty strange being Gas Giants thats mammoth bulks of compressed hydrogen with No solid surface at all

    Uranus and Neptune are perhaps even stranger than that, they are too ”Gas Giants” But of a very diffrent sort compared to Jupiter and Saturn thats mostly hydrogen. These two are instead formed from a heavier element mix. Uranus and Neptune are giant bulks of water, ammonia, cyanide, methane, co2, carbon, with lots of water in this mix they are known as ”Ice Giants” the two Ice Giants of this solar system. But being Ice Giants does not mean a solid surface that you can walk on try to walk Neptune and Uranus and same terrible fate as Jupiter you sink into the goo, outer atmosphere is hydrogen, but as you sink down you gets into a denser and ever denser hotter water – ammonia – methane medium. These two planets are mostly water vapour and ammonia.

    The deeper you go the stranger it becomes too in these two planets and the higher the pressures and temperatures. Water boils at 100 c on Earth but on Uranus / Neptune it cannot because the pressure prevents it .. deeper down the pressure transforms the medium into a very hot fluid, water and anmonia under millions s of atmospheres of pressures and at 4000 c forms a strange white hot ”ionic liquid” where the electrons falls of the atoms and their electrons flows around in the soup. High up in the upper atmosphere thunderstorms ligthing may flash methane into carbon soot, the heavier soot then sinks down into the atmosphere and gets compressed into diamonds that sink towards Uranus/ Neptunes center just around their Rocky cores there maybe superhot seas of ”liquid Diamonds” at ten thousand degrees c. Water and Ammonia that makes up these planets also .. becomes incredibley strange under souch pressures. Neptune are incredibley strange the Ice Giants of the solar system .. its the depths that things get superodd.

    Here its water, ammonia and methane thats the ”air medium” and thats keeps getting stranger as pressure builds further down Superionic Water is really super strange and can only exist under extreme pressures and extreme temperatures, its so strange that most persons cannot grasp it because souch conditions does not exist on the surface of the Earth. Water, methane, ammonia and cyanide crammed into enormous pressures and temperatures that reach over 6000 c.

    What woud the deep deep interior of Neptune be like? If a sample coud be brought to Earth without decompressing into a giant explosion? It woud probaly like liquid steel immesely hot, glowing hot, flowing and being quite good at conductivity of electrical currents. Yet its an fairly normal water – ammonia mix just under immense perssures and temperatures. Its its so strange to hard to grasp. Ultra Ionic Water is extraodinary stuff really

    • The snowstorm we have today here coud be very similar to weather in the upper atmosphere of Uranus and Neptune but there its methane snow and methane rain that falls from methane clouds. Earthlike clouds of water also exists but thats more than 150 kilometers below the upper visible clouds, and they may snow normal as well. We really needs an atmospheric probe to explore Neptunes atmosphere and its clouds, take photos and make physical particle measurements, an Neptune entry probe wouds be less diffcult than Jupiter

    • On the gas planets it’s hard to say how far the dynamics are like “Meteorology” in Earth’s atmosphere or like geophysics in the mantle. Usually the gas planets are so far away from the sun, that the sun’s rays don’t really heat and matter. They have their own planetary convection, so a bit like the Earth’s mantle, but with completely different chemical composition.

      • Yes weather driven by their own internal heat, when it comes to “Ice Giants” they are giant masses of hot very water rich sludge with a gassy colder upper atmosphere, there is no real boundary between the liquid ans gaseous parts.. its a constant increase in temperature and density.

        Neptune and Uranus compressed interiors probaly looks like liquid iron.. yet its a water ionic liquid, glowing hot and incredibely dense

        • Interesting that the “Ice Giants” in fact have no ice surface where you can walk like on planet Hoth, but that gasses are in a fluid “swamp” state.

          The chemical composition on these plantes it difficult to understand on Earth. We have a very different atmosphre, pressure, temperature, gravity and distance from the Sun.

          All this difference allows Uranus and Neptune, to make chemical compositions of water, methan, ammonia and iron that are unkown for us.

      • The deep interior probaly is is like liquid iron, yet its a water – ammonia solution under high temperatures and pressures, glowing hot, incredibley dense, its an extreme enviroment that we cannot reproduce here on Earth for more than a fraction of a second with giant lasers, and no probe woud be able to widstand that for more than a fraction of a second. But an upper atmosphere probe is very possible

  17. No you do not get heart disease from saturated fats, infact saturated fats are prime human nutrients and a major part of our natural energy source and important for our body chemistry and the main thing that nakes you feel really feed. we eaten meat and fats for 2 million years now, and many natural tribes eat little else with perfect cardiovascular health in older days. Meat and fat contains pretyy much all the nutrients you needs. The old dogma its “unhealthy” is simply not true. Infact.. there are no proofs at all that its unhealthy. Stuff that we eaten for millions of years.

    Its resource intensive and not kind to animals.. but not unhealthy for humans, and the best is grass feed.
    I eat alot of moose and reindeer wild meat and homemade butter from friends in Norrland: do i get bad colesterols? the answer is NO…everything we learnt about that in the previous decades is completly wrong..

    The food guidelines here in the west world are the biggest scam ever… based on decades of fake sicence and investments in sicence thats not based on reality. All that is driven by economic intrests and been so for decades. When my parents grew up it was only inflammatory bread and pasta that was mainstaple, it turns to inflammatory sugar in the body. the true cause of heart disease is sugar inflammation and sugar glyciation, but that the industry trys to hide. I have now avoided all processed foods and unnatural products and high glycemic items

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