The VC Bar

Welcome to the Volcano Café bar, a place for all things on or off topic and inane ramblings. There has been a need of late to find a place better suited to various theories, long comments and enthusiasm. This page will be less moderated than the main article pages and cleared out every month (this may change depending on use).

Have fun and don’t forget to tip the barman 😉

1,028 thoughts on “The VC Bar

  1. Here is an image of Raikoke, from May 26 2019. This was a month before it erupted

    This is a day after the eruption on June 23. (The explosion that caused the colourful sunsets around the northern hemisphere was on June 22)

    And the after life. This is on 13 July

  2. Speaking of eruptions and aftermath-here is a computer simulation of the destruction of Pompeii:

    • Too bad they didn’t have cameo by say, David Tennant carrying his screwdriver thingy…
      Exter..min..atzzzzt.

    • Agree…. and the BBC folks could have easily goaded him into doing it for shits and grins.

      Good PR is good PR.

      Failing that, another Dr might have made a good stand-in.

      Dr. Clive Oppenheimer – Volcanologist extraordinaire.

      • I’ve had my suspicions about Oppenhimer-anyone see a blue lLondon Police Box when he’s around..

  3. This is from one of the Raikoke images, 30 June 2019, and is the sea (ice?) just southwest of of Kamchatka.

  4. Albert
    Ponta Do Pico in Azores and Pico island itself appears to be only 25 000 years old!
    And all of Picos stratocone apparently began to form 6000 years ago.
    The island is 50 km long and avarge 1 km above sealevel and is quite mountainous with Picos stratocone taking up most of the western part.

    Thats very productive, more productive than I ever imagined.
    Pico is a basaltic straovolcano built completely of very slow pahoehoe effusive activty from a summit vent.

    Pico was prodbaly active slowly constantly for 1000 s of years before
    Must have been the stromboli-kilauea of the atlantic eons ago.. always glowing.

    Azores is a weak “dying” hotspot thats interacting with leaky faults in the seafloor in Azores tripple junction.
    But its been more prodctive than I can ever imagine

    • This ‘weak’ hot spot (perhaps residual heat from the formation of the Atlantic) actually erupts on average every 20 years. It is almost ‘overdue’.

      • Since only Pico have dont constant holocene activity in Azores, slow fluid alkaline pahoehoe ( slower than Kilauea ) I suspect its near Pico and Faial.. where the dying Azores plume is situated.

        Azores is a dying plume thats interacting with leaky tectonic faults in the seafloor
        Near Azores tripple junction. Tahts why the islands are on these faults

        Some of the more eastern Azores Islands are fuled by decompression melting in the Azores – gibraltar transform fault.
        São Miguel is on souch faultline and recives very small ammounts of magma

      • Most magmas in Azores are alkaline to very alkaline
        Signs of small ammounts of partial melting in the mantle.

        São Miguel have lots of evolved alkaline magmas souch as Trachytes and Phonolites from diffrentitating alkaline basalt or basanitic magmas.

        São Miguel is supprisingly large and active for being magma starved and its amazing it exist at all…

      • Temperaturewise Azores haves the best weather in the world.
        Oceanic Subtropical
        Its always supermild and very comfortable
        winter 16 to 20 and summer 20 to 24.

        Only Azores, Madeira and Northen New Zeeland have that climate.
        Latitude 30 s over the open ocean.
        Great if you are sensitive to both heat and cold

    • Don’t they get a fair number of underwater events, with hull-thumping and pumice rafts ?

      IIRC, sailing ships often reported they thought they’d struck reefs / whales etc. And, IIRC, the infamous ‘Marie Celeste’ abandonment may have taken place in that area, with other ships reporting lesser incidents around that time: Getting the full treatment, your hull severely ‘kicked’ when your cargo was weepy barrels of flammable solvent, would have been the last straw…

    • I was going to say the same.
      Vatnajokull seems to be getting noisy. Is something stirring ?

    • Worth the read not yer average dry scientific paper….
      Have not finished it yet. Lot to unpack..

  5. AVO:

    SHISHALDIN VOLCANO (VNUM #311360)
    54°45’19” N 163°58’16” W, Summit Elevation 9373 ft (2857 m)
    Current Volcano Alert Level: WATCH
    Current Aviation Color Code: ORANGE

    A low-level eruption continues at Shishaldin. Lava is overflowing the summit crater and the lava flow on the northwest flank has increased in length. Satellite data on Sunday afternoon show that the flow has developed two branches, each extending for about 1000 meters (0.62 miles). Seismicity has decreased over the past 12 hours after an extended period of elevated high-amplitude tremor that was likely related to increased lava effusion. Volcanic debris flows (lahars) have also increased in length and now extend as far as 2 km (1.2 miles) on the north and south flanks. Sporadic incandescence was observed in overnight webcam images and satellite data show deposits of hot lava spatter on the summit cone due to minor explosive activity and/or lava fountaining. Small explosions have also been observed on local seismic stations and detected in regional infrasound data. No significant ash emissions observed in satellite or web camera data, although there are likely periods of minor ash emissions in the immediate vicinity of the summit crater.

  6. Two seismic events in Hawaii that are probably not relevant but are quite amazing to see:

    A brief but intense swarm of microearthquakes recorded at the summit of Kilauea:

    I have noticed at least three of these during the two past weeks, the previous 2 were very shallow (sea level), this one reminds me of the big 10 km deep swarms that took place in previous months, since this one was small and short HVO hasn’t located any of the quakes in the monitoring map so I can’t tell exactly.

    Rockfalls at Pu’u’o’o:

    After the rapid swelling of Pu’u’o’o I have started paying more atention to what happens there and I have noticed that the tilt at POC (on the crater rim) jumped up from time to time on what I assumed to be pieces of the wall coming down, which must have been happening frequently since the collapse in April 2018. Today another small jump shows up and that is how it looks like. The earthquakes that have a gradual onset and sometimes look like a bell curve are the rockfalls and they cluster towards the event at 6:15 that must have caused the jump in tilt

    • Do we know what the weather is like?

      There has been more activity in recent hours, but it seems to have been on the slopes of Mauna Loa an hour before Kilauea registered it. That sounds more like weather.

      • The only weather phenomena I have seen to show in the seismograms are rain showers, they look like volcanic tremor would but you can see how it moves from one station to another so that it shows up at diferent times in the diferent stations and with varying shape.

        More often than weather I see that there is a lot of human noise, this is also usually local to one station and often occurs at certain hours of the day. It is worse in some seismometers than others, for example the one in Leilani shows continuous noise throughout the morning (Hawaii time).

        The 2 images I posted come from seismometers that usually don’t show much noise, NPOC and SBL. I think it is volcanic because it is recorded identical in all summit stations plus it is very similar to previous swarms which clearly came from the conduit of Kilauea. Earthquakes like these are very frequent at volcanoes and it is called drumbeat, there is a youtuber, Ben Ferraiuolo, who posted a video about this and comparing them to those observed in Mount Saint Helens and they are practically identical, I am not sure if it is the same as “poppers”, to my understanding these have to change from high frequency to low frequency, I did have a detailed look at the frequencies of the first drumbeat back in early September but right now I don’t remember if they had this characteristic or not.

        • This would be anthropogenic seismicty:

          The station is next to Waimea and Highway 19 so no wonder there is this much noise.

        • As the originator of the “popper” term, there is no definite definition that I have made as to their frequency composition. My only real criteria is that they are very short tornilla style wave forms. Tornilla according to the references I’ve seen, state that they are several seconds in duration and show a harmonic component.

          If your observations support the High to Low frequency transition, I’m okay with that. It would fit the generation mechanism as I envision it. (rock fractures, fluid flows in)

  7. HVO has addressed the inflation of Pu’u’o’o in their last Kilauea monthly update:

    “There was an inflationary event near Pu’u O’o that occurred during the end of September through the first week of October. Continuous stations near the cone, like OKIT, NPOC and KAMO along with KALR, a campaign station experienced an acceleration of motion consistent with source inflation on the rift between Puʻu ʻŌʻō and Kupaianaha”

    So not right underneath Pu’u’o’o but to the northeast of it. The way deformation changed suddenly from one day to another makes me think it must have been an intrusion, sill or dike, a dike should have been noisier and way more short-lasting so I’m thinking a sill as the probable source.

    • I thought this interesting as well

      Results of the water sample analysis will assist HVO in evaluating potential eruptive hazards posed by Kilauea. For example, the high concentration of dissolved sulfate in the lake water (53,000 mg per liter, 75% of total dissolved solids) suggests that it originates from SO2 released by magma residing at shallow depths below Halema’uma’u. Further work may help constrain that depth.

      If much of the SO2 emitted by subsurface magma is being dissolved into the water, current measurements of SO2 emission rate for Kīlauea summit (~30 t/d) are underestimates for true SO2 release from the magma. In the absence of the summit water, SO2 emission rates would likely be higher, perhaps closer to the ~200 t/d emitted prior to the 2008 appearance of the summit lava lake. Future changes in sulfate concentration of the water may indicate changes in SO2 degassing and magma depth

  8. Meanwhile at Mauna Loa. A couple of 3s subject to manual adjustment

    3.0 26km ESE of Honaunau-Napoopoo, Hawaii 2019-11-09 13:34:28 (UTC) -1.5 km
    3.0 24km E of Honaunau-Napoopoo, Hawaii 2019-11-09 11:39:24 (UTC) -1.5 km

    • They look big in the seismometers so likely to be around that size there has also been a 2.9 southeast of the M3s, 8 km deep along the basal fault (between the Kaoiki and Hilea Seismic Zones):

      2019-11-09 13:34:34 M 2.9 8.4 km

    • If the automatic detection is right then the second 3.0 was followed six seconds later by

      2.9 13km N of Pahala, Hawaii 2019-11-09 13:34:34 (UTC) 8.4 km

      • Within seconds, those tend to confuse the automatic detection system as recently seen with Pahala.

      • Reviewed already, it was faster than usual. The M3s downgraded to 2.7s and the 2.9 no longer exists.

        Tiltmeters do not show anything unusual.

  9. Two larger quakes near Mauna Loa summit. Some reverberation in the seismograph signals afterwards.

  10. Albert here is a funny question
    Its something that no one wants to happen ..
    But many certainly thinks about it

    If Earth was placed inside the suns photosphere,
    How long woud it take for our poor planet to be vaporized and turned into plasma?

    It woud be like placing a little hard chocolate ball in a pot of boiling water…

      • But what about if we place Earth in suns core?
        There temperatures and pressures are very much higher.

        Are we talking about months now for Earth to vaporize? This is an insane question from a person that thinks too much

        Also earths heavy element composition ( Earth is star ashes .. will be disliked by the solar core )

        What woud happen?

  11. The Mauna Loa swarm is continuing. The GPS north of the summit ridge (PHAN) has started moving south, since september – that is opposite to what it is normally doing. Inflation at the summit should make it move north, so I am not sure what to make of that. Perhaps the southwest rift is deflating.

    • I think there is also a clue with the MOKP-MLSP cross caldera graph that changed in August, then we lost the signal during this time frame. It then returned to its increasing trend. PAT2 also slowed its east velocity in the same time frame.

  12. Kea is rocking
    2019-11-11 17:11:23 2 35
    2019-11-11 17:08:47 2.4 28.8
    2019-11-11 17:01:20 2 31.4
    2019-11-11 16:56:11 1.9 29
    2019-11-11 16:35:52 4.9 32.6
    2019-11-11 16:33:05 2.6 28.9
    2019-11-06 19:08:15 1.7 19.4

  13. https://www.solarham.net/

    November 11, 2019 @ 14:45 UTC
    Mercury Transit
    The planet Mercury is currently passing in between the Earth and Sun, providing solar watchers with a special treat today. The Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) captured the great image below within the past half hour.

  14. I wish it was possible to surf the solar tsunamis…impressive
    These are photospheric gas waves that can be many 10 s of kilometers tall..

    I needs a liquid hydrogen cooled surfboard and to somehow not sink into the photospheres interior
    Albert any suggestions to make my dream a reality?

    • This is impossible… nothing can get inside the photosphere
      everything becomes plasma

      • With supercold liquid hydrogen cooling and extremely reflective materials
        Its probaly possible to fly a spacecraft in the suns photosphere for a short while.
        Exterior needs a foamy insulating extremely heat resistant materials at same time cooled with liquid hydrogen pumped in tubes.

        Only way to get close to the sun

    • Hmm…

      They look at dangers from space and also biological dangers but sadly they don’t combine the two and estimate the risk from space biology. Brain eating space lizards will have to remain a black swan 🙂

      “To Serve Man, it’s… it’s a cookbook!”

    • Humans are indeed an adaptable and intelligent species and will in the future use her techolology and intelligence to surivive. If we dont destroy ourselves.

      But …
      Asteorid and comet impacts that ruins the food chain and destroys infrastructure and cause impact winters
      Are probaly the biggest threat
      IF Swift Tuttle hits Earth, then we are certainly exctinct

    • Human extinction is probaly a very unlikley event for nearest future.
      At least in my lifetime

      But a potential Swift Tuttle event is doom for us all…
      Year 4000 it will pass insanely close to earth.
      And future pushes by Jupiter may put it on collison course.
      Astronomers calls it one of the most dangerous objects to humanity

      Swift Tuttle is 30 kilometers across and goes at almost 60 kilometers a second!
      That woud send up so much rock vapour and hot materials in our atmosphere that humans woud be overwhelmed and then you have a impact winter.. that dwarf the dinosaur one.

      In my opinon
      Large impact events, really large ones coud be the most dangerous threat to humans.

      Thanks for the articles and they discusses all kinds of dangers to man
      But Impact events are probaly the most dangerous ( but they haves to be very large too )

  15. And now for something completely different: Earthquakes and the Ionosphere.

    I vaguely remember having read something similar (but much less detailed) a long time ago.
    Maybe something for a statistician to (dis-)prove?

    https://hackaday.com/2019/11/12/hf-propagation-and-earthquakes/

    This was found in the spam folder. Not sure why but it may have been thrown there for doubts about the email address that was provided. As a general comment, if there are concerns about providing an email address when signing up: our policy regarding its use can be found here: https://www.volcanocafe.org/volcanocafe-and-the-gdpr/
    – admin

  16. Seen across south Hawaii

    The smaller hickup starting at 16:30 is probably the M7 from Indonesia. The rest is local.

    • It was 2 spasmodic tremors from Pahala.
      The first big one: 2019-11-14 17:15:24 M2.7 40.9km
      And the weaker follow-up: 2019-11-14 18:15:08 M2.3 35.6km

      I am very intrigued with Pahala, the tremors that originate from the southern part of the swarm peaked back in March and have been much less frequent over the last few months. However the rates of earthquakes from the northern part of the swarm skyrocketed in late August and have remained fluctuating but far above normal levels since then, it will be interesting to see how this evolves over time.

  17. Hi Albert I haves a question about sunspots on Ultra-cool .. ultra dim Red Dwarf stars
    Like TRAPPIST-1 haves a photosphere temperature of only 2500 C

    The sunspots on that star woud only be
    1400 C ? In these ultra cold sunspots
    woud the heaiver elements in the star condense into glowing hot clouds?

    woud the ultracool sunspots on TRAPPIST – 1 have sillicate droplet lava clouds ?
    that rains molten rock into the stars hydrogen interior?

    Brown dwarfs up little above 2000 C
    Do have sillicate and iron clouds and hell – rain
    But what about the sunspots of the very coolest red dwarfs?

    https://www.researchgate.net/figure/Schematic-of-cloud-layers-in-atmospheres-ranging-from-Jupiter-to-the-warmest-brown_fig2_2400918

    https://mobile.twitter.com/newscientist/status/530011697000370178/photo/1

    • If the Sunspots on these smallest Red Dwarfs
      are below Iron and Sillicate vaporization temperatures
      It coud condense to ”hell clouds” in these sunspots.

      But it also depends how rich the star is in heavy elements.

      Our own sun is too massive and too hot for souch rains
      And most Red Dwarfs are certainly too

      • Albert any opions of the conditions in the sunspots on Ultra – cool red dwarfs?
        If the TRAPPISt – 1 photosphere is only 2500 K ( 2500 C )

        What about the cool sunspots on these ultra – cold Red Dwarfs?
        Sillicate rain and Iron rain from clouds seems even possible at normal photosphere on souch a cool Red Dwarf.

        But its the sunspots on these coolest Red Dwarfs Im curious on.
        How hot are they? and does they have heavy element condensation and rains?

        • Iron melts at 1538 °C and turns into a gas at 2862 °C
          TRAPPIST-1 haves 2500 C in normal photosphere!

          This red dwarf coud absoutley have glowing hot iron clouds and sillicate clouds and their rains. Even outside the coolest sunspots
          If the star is rich enough in heavy elements

          • Red glowing orange clouds and thunderstorms!
            Thats what you woud see in TRAPPIST – 1 upper layers
            Glowing mean hell sillicate cumululonimbus

            Raining lava and molten metals into the stars interior where it evaporate and rise up and condense again..

        • Ultracool stars may not have star spots. Mid-range M-type stars do, and their spots are about 200 K cooler than the photosphere. The highest temperature where particles can form is around 1600 K where some oxides become stable. Silicate requires 800 K and iron even lower. These temperatures differ from those needed on Earth because of the low pressure in stellar atmospheres. Amorphous particles cannot survive in these conditions. Some crystaline particles may be present further out: these are transparent so don’t get hot.

          • I means liquid droplets not solid crystals
            TRAPPIST-1 is cool enough for Iron Rain in the photosphere
            Thanks for your opinion.

            But many cool small Red Dwarfs are insanely magenticaly active

          • No liquid. There is no liquid phase in near-vacuum. You only get liquids under higher pressure. And magnetic fields are strong in mid-range M stars, but the coolest ones are much less magnetically active.

          • Red dwarfs haves extreme surface photosphere density
            being small compact stars…
            But highest mass brown dwarfs are probaly even more dense at upper atmosphere as they are not puffed up as red dwarfs are.

            And liquid rock flows on IO s surface in vaccum
            Lava can flow in vaccum right? it does that on IO

          • Pressure in the solar photosphere is less than 1mb. The solar atmosphere is a lot lower still. It is a near vacuum.

          • But molten rock can be liquid in a vaccum right?
            Mars and specialy IO haves / had active lava flows in very low pressures.
            Ionian lavas flow in vaccum

          • No. They will almost immediately either boil or freeze (or both) at the surface. Liquid lava on an airless planet is only possible underneath the surface

          • A red Dawrfs solar photosphere is much much denser than our larger suns.
            Our own sun is hotter and more puffed up and less dense in photosphere.

            A red Dwarf is compact and cool and haves a very high “surface” gravity
            And is denser in photosphere.

            Im correct here?

          • The difference in surface gravity is only a factor of up to 5. It makes no difference on this scale. Sorry, no rain on the sun.

          • Lava sourely flows free on IO s surface!
            Many Inoian flows are pahoehoe or Aa and displays same morphology as earthly hawaiian flows

  18. We haven’t had a riddle for a while.. can anyone guess which volcano this is? The image was taken four weeks ago.

  19. Bærjarfjall

    For unfathomable reasons this was classified as spam by our deamon. We apologize for this. Among the VC faithful, the spam dungeon is well known for its ready supply of cookies, needed for the long wait. – admin

    • You were right, and you were the first, so ding has been taken away from its current owner and given to you.

    • This volcanic feature Bærjarfjall bears a small-scale resemblance to the many pancake-shaped lava domes found on the surface of Venus. But only the origin of Bærjarfjall was different of course – it was looks to me like it was formed subglacially under the pressure of the thick ice cap covering most, if not all, of Iceland during the last ice age. A lot like the immensely dense Venusian atmosphere preventing any explosive eruptions, instead forcing the silicic lava to ooze out into a voluminous flat mass. Then, like the Venusian “pancake domes”, the central crater was probably formed in the end due to the magma conduit draining afterwards.

      There is apparently another one of those volcanic feature about 10 km to the SSE, right next to the Krafla fissures which erupted from 1975 to 1984. It’s a bit harder to make out from Google maps satellite view, as it has more irregular edges. But it appears to be flat-topped and has a central crater like Bærjarfjall.

      • This is the larger area with your peak (Sentinel image). Note the lava flows, clearly visible because of their lack of snow.

        and the next one is further to the south

        • Winters there are miserable
          Extremely stormy and very humid
          And a cold heavy maritime subpolar cold.
          Iceland is one of these places with worst climate in the world

          The dark Aa lava lobe is from 1975 – 1984 Krafla lavas

      • This from Júlía Úlfdís Jóhannsson 2009, Master thesis:

        “The Ice Age glacier retreated from Þeistareykir well
        before the end of the Ice Age. At that time the area became mostly covered in lava. The
        lava fields in the Þeistareykir area are from the end of the Ice Age, or 10,000 to 14,000
        years old, except for Þeistareykjahraun, which is the most recent lava at around 2500 years
        old. All lavas are from shield volcanoes, of variable size and with petrological differences.
        The geology of the area is dominated by basaltic lava, hyaloclastite and intrusives.
        Lambafjöll and Þeistareykir mountains consist of hyaloclastite, palagonite and pillow lava.
        Bæjarfjall and Kvíhólafjöll are hyaloclastite (tuff) mountains created in a subglacial
        eruption during the latest (glacier) stage of the Ice Age. North of Baejarfjall is Ketilfjall
        that is a tuff ridge from the second to last glacier phase of the Ice Age. “

  20. Regarding the Pahala quakes, the overlay shows where they are. This is an almost flat area at at some 700 ft altitude. Ideal for a sil: because the surface is so flat, there is very little net force pushing the magma sideways. The quakes avoid the steeper country on the other side of the road, and avoid off-coast, both much steeper. I think this is indeed a pool where new magma collects. Eventually it will go to either Kilauea or Mauna Loa (or both) but that could be a long time. The continuous quakes show that the magma is not flowing through: it is piling up.

    • Albert
      I think we need to ask HVO to enlarge their Deformation page (Earthquake Hypocenters Map and Cross Section) west to longitude 155.5 so that we can see them there. I am sure that there would be issues, science, automatic reporting, and money issues that may prevent this.

      I spent enough money over there in our 3 summers visiting, yeah maybe not!

      Mac.

  21. As our attention was diverted by Askja and now Reykjanes ridge, Greip managed to sneak in another deep swarm. DJK drumplot is not functional at the moment, but it was clearly visible on KIS and DYN.

    Friday
    15.11.2019 19:50:26 64.567 -17.186 20.1 km 0.7 99.0 18.2 km ESE of Bárðarbunga
    Friday
    15.11.2019 19:48:32 64.594 -17.178 17.6 km 0.7 99.0 17.5 km ESE of Bárðarbunga
    Friday
    15.11.2019 19:47:47 64.591 -17.177 18.7 km 0.7 99.0 17.6 km ESE of Bárðarbunga
    Friday
    15.11.2019 19:46:52 64.590 -17.247 24.7 km 0.7 99.0 14.5 km ESE of Bárðarbunga
    Friday
    15.11.2019 19:45:15 64.590 -17.164 20.5 km 1.5 99.0 18.2 km ESE of Bárðarbunga
    Friday
    15.11.2019 19:44:40 64.590 -17.164 19.6 km 1.8 99.0 18.2 km ESE of Bárðarbunga
    Friday
    15.11.2019 19:43:59 64.593 -17.177 18.7 km 0.8 99.0 17.5 km ESE of Bárðarbunga
    Friday
    15.11.2019 19:42:14 64.592 -17.171 17.0 km 0.7 99.0 17.8 km ESE of Bárðarbunga

  22. The ‘YOUNGER DRYAS IMPACT THEORY’ gains traction with the discovery of airborne soot, and anomalously-high concentrations of palladium and platinum (of a possible extraterrestrial source), in sediment cores taken from a lake in South Carolina. The Younger Dryas was a sudden return to Ice Age climactic conditions about 12.8 thousand years ago, following a gradual warming after the Last Glacial Maximum (at about 20,000 years BP). This abrupt cold snap lasted 1,300 years, and has been tied to the mass extinction of ice-age megafauna, such as Mastodons, Mammoths, Saber-Toothed Cats, and many others. Previous explanations held that very large meltwater lakes in North America (Pleistocene Lake Agassiz), catastrophically drained into the North Atlantic, disrupting heat transfer into the region, and returning North America and Europe to glacial conditions. This impact hypothesis suggests that an asteroid or comet hit northwest Greenland (forming the Hiawatha Glacier Crater), melted the ice there, and had the same effect in the North Atlantic Ocean. It also suggests that more than one impactor was involved, with numerous ‘airburst’ impacts simultaneously around the globe, which also set fire to ice-age forests. The result was an ‘impact winter’, in which smoke and dust blocked the sun, and helped to abruptly lower temperatures around the world. Here is the study, published in the Journal of Nature: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-51552-8

    • This hypothesis remains very controversial. The ice cores show that the platinum came down over a 21-year period. Dust does not stay up that long. People proposed multiple impacts and that becomes very dubious.

  23. How exoplanet
    dayskies and evening skies coud be coloured
    According to diffrent atmospheric pressures and
    diffrent main sequence star luminosity intensities.

    Planets with denser atmospheres than Earth
    Develops pale creamy faint greenish Noon skies
    And amazingly red fiery burning sunsets

    • Authur of the image comments:

      ”1 bar Earth-like atmosphere densities would tend to be light to dark blue at the zenith, due to the scattering of low-wavelength blue light. If the planet’s sun was very hot, the sky would look a deeper blue, while cooler stars would give the sky a lighter blue to almost white look. When the sun gets to 3000k and below, the sky starts to take on an orange/brown tinge.
      Like on earth, the horizon is the lightest in color and the zenith the deepest.

      10 bar Denser exoplanet atmospheres would appear brighter (more washed out) and the primary color in the spectrum more “pure” (I’m unsure what the term “pure” means exactly when it comes to optical perception…would it look whiter?). Likewise, thinner atmospheres would be less bright than earth’s and the colors more “pure.”
      With increasing pressure the sky color at the zenith becomes increasingly yellow. In my image this means that an earth-like sky at 10x earth pressure would appear blueish/green near the zenith.
      At lower temperatures I’m assuming the sun would appear tinged by the color listed under “star temperature.” Otherwise you’ll probably only see the star’s color when it’s near the horizon.
      I’m assuming when you get down into K and M class suns, the surroundings on the planet would take on a progressively redder tinge due to the decreasing prevalence of blue wavelength light.
      I suspect the gradient of color from horizon to zenith will be steeper/gentler in some atmospheres. I’ve guessed that the gradient would be more apparent on a high G world (on the right). ”

    • No doubt that habitable exoplanets with denser atmospheres than Earth…. that also orbits M Dwarfs
      Experiences insanely red, insanely intense sunsets
      Spectacular

  24. not much going on with me… just enjoying finding my glasses in the mornings. But for You people who don’t FB, here is a read i enjoy on Twitter and Commander Hadfield does too so it’s not just me… https://twitter.com/Rainmaker1973
    You’re Welcome….
    Best!motsfo

      • IMO have updated commentary

        An earthquake swarm that started around noon yesterday (16th November) on Reykjanes ridge looks to be decreasing. Today close to 20 earthquakes have been detected in the area, all of the around M2.0. Yesterday roughly 30 earthquakes > M3.0 were detected in the area. The largest earthquakes in the swarm was M4.5 at 13:17 16th November. The swarm is located 45 km SW of Reykjanes. Around 230 smaller earthquakes have been detected since the swarm started. The IMO has received reports of the earthquakes being felt in Reykjanes peninsula, the capital area and Akranes.

        Earthquakes are still being detected in the earthquake swarm around Askja.
        Written by a specialist at 17 Nov 17:01 GMT

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