Volcano World Cup 2018: Groups G-H

Last 2 groups, just do like you did before read through the countries of each group then select 2 countries in the polls of each group who you want to advance to the knockout stage.




Herzogenhugel hill, La Helle. SOURCE: geocaching.com

Volcanism is so hard to find in Belgium, let alone not having any volcanoes, but the best I could find is La Helle which is said to host a rock of ancient volcanic origin.


Baru Volcano. SOURCE: insidepanamarealestate.com

A couple of volcanoes in Panama though both of them are currently not active. The most well known of the two is Baru, which erupted in the mid 16th Century but now currently has a lava dome complex present in the summit caldera breached to the west. The lesser known El Valle Volcano doesn’t have any historical eruptions but evidence is present for phreatomagmatic and phreatic eruptions.


Nefza. SOURCE: africaguide.com

There are no volcanoes in Tunisia but the closest we can find is evidence for post-collisional volcanism in the form of mafic and rhyolite lavas/dykes aged 5-12 million years old found in the Nefza and Mogods areas.


Glowing lava dome of Soufriere Hills Volcano. SOURCE: Photovolcanica.

If you’re focusing on mainland England then you won’t find any volcanoes there but there remains of ancient volcanism in the Borrowdale Volcanic Group and the Cheviot Hills. But that’s not all, the volcanoes actually lie in the British Overseas Territories and because England is part of Great Britain I think it is fair to say that I can assign the volcanoes of the British Overseas Territories to England. Beginning with Soufriere Hills on the island of Montserrat, now had Northern Ireland qualified for the World Cup I would’ve given it to them on the basis that Irish immigrants had historically settled on Montserrat but Northern Ireland failed to qualify so I’m free to give it to England instead. Soufriere Hills roared to life in 1995 and since then up until 2013 powerful explosions had occurred and massive pyroclastic flows reached the sea destroying the city of Plymouth in the process, so this would make it England’s most powerful volcanic weapon. Over to Ascension Island now, and despite the fact that no historical eruptions have occurred there the lavas and volcanism have a youthful appearance. Going south we have Nightingale Island and Tristan Da Cunha. Nightingale Island erupted from a submarine vent in 2004 and Tristan Da Cunha erupted from a flank vent in 1961-62 causing the evacuation of the island’s only settlement. Finally, we have the South Sandwich Islands which are a volcanic island arc in the sub-Antarctic region. The activity is often present on Mount Curry on Zavodovski Island and Mount Michael on Saunders Island, but we can’t forget Mount Belinda on Montagu Island having last erupted in 2007 and also Mount Sourabaya on Bristol Island which erupted recently in 2016.




Extinct peak of Ostrzyca. SOURCE: villagreta.pl

Any active or dormant volcanoes in Poland today? no, but in western Poland a few volcanic necks and a couple of extinct volcanoes are present in the Sudetes Mountains area. Examples of them being Ostrzyca, Grodczyn, and Wilcza Gora.


One of the two extinct cones of Deux Mamelles. SOURCE: Wikipedia

The Cap-Vert Peninsula in western Senegal holds evidence for prehistoric volcanic activity especially Deux Mamelles, two hills of volcanic origin.


The giant Nevado del Ruiz. SOURCE: Recursos Naturales de Colombia

A volcanic powerhouse Colombia hosts a handful of historically active volcanoes including Cumbal, Purace, Nevado de Tolima, Galeras, and Nevado del Huila. The most notable of all is Nevado del Ruiz which is well known for it’s devastating lahar in 1985 following an eruption. Last but not least, we can’t forget about Cerro Machin which although it hasn’t erupted during historical times it is a potentially dangerous volcano.


Sakura-jima as seen from Kagoshima. SOURCE: Photovolcanica.

We all know what a volcanic powerhouse Japan is hosting numerous active volcanoes not only on the mainland, but also in the Ryukyu, Izu, and Ogasawara island chains. Notable Japanese volcanoes include Fuji, Sakura-jima, Unzen, Aso, Kirishima, Suwanose-jima, Asama, Usu, etc.


Polls will close on the 24th June.


85 thoughts on “Volcano World Cup 2018: Groups G-H

  1. I never thought I would pick England to win first place in a group of 4 in a volcano related competition…

  2. Imagine this:
    – A volcanic Island, no active volcanoes for about 6500 years… everyone thought… it’s over.
    – Then, in the late 90’s of the 20th century, they started drilling mountains to build tunnels to make highways, which was really necessary because the old roads were slow and dangerous … around the same time they also dig tunnels to collect water … and find what they did not want to find.
    – In several of these excavations they found fissures sending out volcanic gases and spring water with high levels of CO2.
    – In 2013 one of these tunnels, with more than 3000 meters long, began to show ground formations, these deformations increase year by year, the regional government promises works every year and every year are postponed (this tunnel is the only direct way to connect the north and the south of the island and what is done with speed in 30 minutes would take hours in slow, dangerous and treacherous roads).

    Is this tunnel at risk of collapse? It was full of CO2 fissures that were covered/ cemented over , this in addition to gasefied water that also present.

    PS: I’m talking about Madeira Island, that is part of Portugal.

    • Thank You for posting this….. really scary i think as i can’t imagine cement ever holding up over time and the tunnel becoming toxic. Best!motsfo

    • I enjoyed visiting, (through cyberspace) I saw the tunnel,
      beautiful area, I just can’t remember if someone I knew a long time ago went
      there on vacation or if “someone” was drinking Madeira wine,
      I will never know but thanks for your post, hopefully the tunnel will hold up.

  3. I looked at the GPS units at the summit, and it appears only CRIM is still sharply dropping off now. UWEV is leveling off quite obviously. NPIT probably fell into the crater, I’m not sure what happened to HOVL but there are way less circles on it so I think it stopped working early on in this activity, maybe it got hit by a block?

    The other stations BYRL near kilauea iki, and CNPK on the upper southwest rift, dont seem to have any data at all so I dont know if anything is happening there. However both are on a shallow connection to halemaumau so there is probably significant deflation there too, which is again likely to be leveling off now with the collapse slowing down. All the stations further away seem to be slowing down too despite being on the east rift just down from CRIM, showing a clear exponential decay that would be expected.

    I dont know why the strongest deflation is happening south of the actual collapse but CRIM is where the east rift meets the caldera and there is a small magma body there that has collapsed at some point to form keanankako’i crater, and it also fed the 1982, 1974, 1971 1877 and possibly 1832 eruptions. I think I pointed this out a while ago when this started, saying it is an interesting observation, but with the level of deflation elsewhere starting to slow now but a continuing sharp drop at CRIM it is actually a real possibility. Maybe it has already started and there just aren’t any visible cracks yet. I guess once that happens it will be really visible and someone will notice. CRIM appears to be moving northwest though so the said collapse could end up merged with the existing crater.

    I wonder whether the park reopening will be met with a record swarm of tourists wanting to see the change, or a record low because of fear of being crushed by flying rocks…

    • It depends. “Don’t be there” applies, but you’re dealing with Homo Stultus and a group that wishes to have no liability. With that mix, I think the “no liability” group will err on the side of caution

      • About that, I read on the USGS Volcanoes facebook that they said the current situation still has the lava field belonging to the previous owner of the property it flowed over, so as of now the situation for someone to quarry the cinder cone and lava flow away is still there… I suspect that law will change or any actions taken to remove the lava will be very strongly objected after this but right now it isn’t technically illegal…
        PGV will probably be rebuilt after this though, and despite the objection to it existing in the area it is still a much better alternative to using fossil fuel power sources. It might work even better after this considering how close the fissure is to it.

        • USGS doesn’t write laws regarding land ownership. State and County criminals do and can change that whenever they are in session and can agree among themselves. Staying in control is determined by the number of votes they can buy. That’s why insurance companies are required by law to provide coverage for property within the “destroyed quite often” zone.

  4. Very minor correction Soufriere Hills kicked off in 1995, not 2005 And it’s not the only volcano in the British colonial possessions there’s Tristan da Cunha, and the highly acvtive, but all-but unstudied South Sandwich island arc ‘England’s secret volcanological weapon?

    • You are right, I confused 2005 with 1995 on Soufruere Hills so I will correct it later. But Tristan Da Cunha and the South Sandwich Islands I’ve mentioned already.

  5. The fountain from fissure 8 in the morning, viewed from pu’u o’o north cam. This is the glow in the day even though the camera is still in night vision mode, so it is pretty bright.

    Here is the colour version:

  6. I haven’t been registering a vote because I don’t know the basis for evaluating a country – if it’s the probability of a major eruption in the near future, then Japan ought to get points for Ioto. Oregon isn’t in the running and if it was you’d not have to go very far back in time to encounter spectacular eruptions, but would we get credit for the Columbia flood basalts?

  7. Puyehue-Cordon Caulle has been raised to yellow, moderate swarm of hybrid EQs and new deformation.

  8. Well, they are making progress on widening Hwy 87. Last year they had to keep shutting down work because Ospreys kept trying to nest in the tops of the cranes. The area where that crane is located is in a swamp where they are putting in an additional bridge.

  9. I was looking in on Kilauea summit just now and for the 25 minutes or so there has been a very ashy, brown cloud to the right of the camera. I’m wondering if caldera drop has happened out of camera shot over there, possibly in a new area.

    Of course, it could just be general suspended ash from the caldera, but it went up quite quickly from a fairly clear view, and is taking its time to clear.

    • Hmm – could be that unusual atmospheric condition called: rain (currently sorely lacking in south east England).

        • OK so it is clearing and the steaming has increased. I think that was a good, solid rain shower. Showers are forecast for the area.

  10. If you go back to 11:05 on the Kilauea live stream of the summit you can see what looks like a dirt devil entering the view on the right. It looks like this dust that is currently in the camera view originated from off screen camera on the right, not from the summit vent.

  11. On the wide angle cam overlooking the summit area, it looks like the area to the north/northeast is collapsing but without any cracking of the ground visible on the edges. It looks like the whole shallow system is draining out, so collapses could start as far away as kilauea iki although probably not in the northern part of the caldera that doesn’t have magma under it. This would create a sort of deep chasm across the caldera, although the outer collapses won’t necessarily become part of the crater.
    If this collapse ends up being large enough to be considered a caldera in its own right as opposed to a ‘collapse crater’ then the summit could be quite a scary place for a while, most of the eruptions immediately after the existing caldera formed were very rapid large volume lava fountaining eruptions. Some were genuine explosive eruptions with stratospheric eruption columns (1790 is the best example). One of them deposited a thick layer of reticulite where Volcano is now suggesting a considerable fountain height of well over 1 km. Eruptions in the caldera between 1790 and 1823 were similar and notably occurred after a very large and draining rift eruption and summit collapse, much bigger than the current one, so there isn’t necessarily any reason why this should shut everything down in that way.
    If inflation resumes at a rapid rate then it would be wise to avoid the summit area, the 1790 explosive eruption happened only 8 months or so after the major rift eruption similar to the one now…

    Considering that really big lava fountains (500+ meters high) often don’t actually generate large lava flows, it might be better to see them as continuous strombolian eruptions. The bigger version of a plinian eruption is called an ultraplinian eruption, so a massive lava fountain, like the 1986 izu oshima eruption or most of the recent eruptions on mt etna, should be called an ultrastrombolian eruption.
    I guess a flood basalt could be called an ultrahawaiian eruption.

    • For fountain heights, can’t beat this one. Quite a bit more than 500 meters.

      • CME? Yikes. Glad that’s not coming out way. On a side note, solar weather is amazing!

          • And CMEs from the sun are dwarfed by the ones on proxima centauri…

            Proxima b would have been rendered uninhabitable by a really huge flare a few years ago, and it has likely seen million of those in its lifetime. The planet might be earth-like but its surface definitely isn’t…

          • Prominence, CME…they’re all cool. The Corona was my very favorite part about the solar eclipse last summer. I was at a place where we got 2mins 20sec of totality.

  12. There’s also some volcanoes in the British Antarctic Territory, and I believe that some of the Chagos islands, in the British Indian Ocean Territory are volcanic in origin.

  13. On the PG webcam, there seems to be some burning just behind the lava flow, in Leilani.

    • Yeah, looks like maybe an overflow and houses lost…. just one slow tradgedy.

  14. I think our viewing may be impaired today with the continuing wet weather forecast for the area.

  15. I hope USGS makes a video of the entire eruption as a timelapse from the PG cam. It would allow a really detailed look at how the eruption progressed viewed as a single cut.

    They should also speed up the summit live stream and post that too.

  16. Crater rim drive will need a new name. Halema’uma’u has swallowed part of it.

    • Halemaumau will need a new name too, the original crater doesn’t exist anymore either 😉

      • USGS say : What’s in a name?

        We’ve noticed that many of you have been wondering about a couple of things…1) whether or when Fissure 8’s name will change (or if it’s a volcano in and of itself), and 2) is the collapse of Halemaʻumaʻu Crater actually forming a caldera.

        This causes us to think about human nature. Psychological research states that the tendency to categorize things is an innate trait of humans. Putting things in well understood boxes shapes the way in which we understand the world.

        Then there’s a theory of physics called the “observer effect”, which states that once someone (or something) observes another object, the object itself changes. The same is true for the words we choose – when something is labeled, it changes how it’s perceived.

        So…what does all this have to do with naming geologic features? Well…by giving fissure 8 a formal name, or by defining the subsidence of Halemaʻumaʻu Crater as a caldera-forming event, it takes us out of the moment of observing and assessing and puts us into a place of defining and deciding.

        Also, the USGS does not formally assign names to features in Hawaii. That process is left up to a group of the local community including Hawaiian elders.

        Fissure 8 may eventually be formally named, but will never be designated a volcano in its own right, because the eruptions are occurring from the magma storage regions of Kīlauea Volcano. Our definition of fissure 8: the current active lava eruption site on Kīlauea Volcano.

        Halemaʻumaʻu Crater is subsiding – its walls are falling in on itself and it’s grown to nearly twice its original width and depth. Is this a nested caldera?? One definition of a caldera is a pit more than 1 mile in diameter. By that definition, Halemaʻumaʻu could be considered already there. To change the name of it would add confusion and not be educational — the terminology doesn’t matter so much — what matters is the mechanics of what is happening.

        • This seems the right approach. Naming things in Hawaii is done carefully. Effectively, the native Hawaiians have first rights, and the local community is somewhat allergic to things being imposed from above. It also makes sense to wait until this event is over before deciding how to classify it. The collapse may even be so irregular that it is hard to define the edge of the crater, for instance.

          Where did you get this text from, Mike?

          • I suppose it could be called pu’u G at the moment, as G is the 8th letter and this is ‘fissure’ 8. Apparently the locals dont actually want it to be called pu’u leilani.
            Whatever name it is given, it will likely prevent anyone trying to quarry it from being able to do so. Maybe that is why the 1955 and 1960 cones have been allowed to be quarried, they never got formally named. I have never heard anyone refer to the 1960 cone as anything other than ‘cinder cone’ or ‘cinder pit’ so I guess no-one is aware of a proper name, and I think these guys doing all the videos would know a thing or two about the naming process so if the dont know then it probably never had one.

            The text is from USGSVolcanoes facebook

  17. Starting to see some steam from the crater, maybe something soon.

  18. Like an old buffer who won’t leave a topic alone, I return to the subject of the birds flying around in the Kilauea Caldera, visible on the USGS live webcam.

    The likeliest candidate is the Koa‘e kea White-Tailed Tropicbird, a bird that nests in the island craters and calderas (Darwin Award pending…?).

    I found an interesting article about both the birds and the area:


    Link fixed – admin

    • Oh, thankyou! Nice article, I enjoyed it. What beautiful birds!

    • Good find…. really felt like being there… Thanks! Best!motsfo

    • If my theory of how future eruptions might play out becomes true, then those birds might want to watch out.
      The southwest rift was much more active between ~1770 and 1823 than it is now (probably when a lot of the cones they best in formed) so if the same sort of thing happens in the near future these birds might get their Darwin Award…

  19. The explosion pattern at the caldera has not continued today. Instead of one explosion, there were two misfires. And the earthquake pattern has broken up into a northern and a southern segment. The crater seems quiet. The seismograph is very noisy though.

    • Explosion just happened (via VolcanoYT livestream). Lots of collapses again.

      • 5.4
        Volcanic Eruption 5km WSW of Volcano, Hawaii
        2018-06-21 23:12:59 (UTC)
        0.6 km

        Yes 5.4 🙂

    • For those of us not following live cams it would really help if you could add a url to the post, even if glitched to make it ‘wrong’. Saves an awful lot of searching.

  20. Wheeeee! that was fun! Scroll back the live camera and watch….. Hubby was getting a concerning phone call from family member and i had to scroll back my excitement and pretend like i was giving him my full attention…. (don’t think i get and A, probably an incomplete. 😉 )

  21. Thank You everyone! It’s hard to catch these explosions 😀
    I just saw a black bird, close to the camera.
    Hopefully all the birds are holding their breath flying across
    and will be fine.

    • Its funny, we visited the last two years and I can’t recall seeing any birds out there. Now, one of the trips was at sunset to see the glow (no visible lava when we were there just a glimpse at spatter) and the other we might have been too excited, first trip to an active volcano! We are looking to return this year for our vacation but I am not sure that the observatory will be open to witness the birds ourselves. I did find a airbnb available very close to Lava tree park but the wife (maybe she is in contact with Geo on his advise of avoiding danger) wont let me book it.

      With all of the new layers of lava and ash exposed with the collapse, being witness to a “caldera collapse (my opinion not a scientific one), and possibility of using birds (if they were smart enough to avoid the vent during eruptions) to predict an pending event, there is going to be some science with what we have had the privilidge to witness.


      • Not my fault. I only advise for the most survivable action. No matter what action you take, it does not rule out getting killed by stampeding gerbils. When your times up, the universe will find you.. somehow.

        • Question for everybody.

          Where are Gerbils naturally in the wild?? I stepped on one (and killed it) of my sister’s when it got out of it cage maybe 40+ years ago, but until recently I had no idea of where they occurred in the the wild.


          • quick google has wikipedia saying

            The pale gerbil (Gerbillus perpallidus) is endemic to Egypt and is distributed mainly in the northwestern part of the country. It is also known as the pallid gerbil

            Botta’s gerbil (Dipodillus bottai) is a species of gerbil endemic to Sudan and possibly northern Kenya.

            so looks like north east africa is the answer

    • “Black bird?” Might be a crow. Some of those are well armored. One of my cousins shot a crow with a pellet gun. Bird just ruffled his feathers and the pellet fell out.

      • Crow? Let’s hope not. The Hawaiian crow became extinct in the wild around 2002. Last fall eleven of them from the breeding program were released into the wild. They have enough to contend with without also having to face fumes from the eruptions.

  22. Byron Ledge Trail, Hale Mau Mau trail, did people walk those or did they just drive to the parking, how close could you get, how tall are the edges of the large caldera, what is the history of that huge caldera, I need pictures and video to comprehend, apologies to Albert if I need to go back and read or re-read.
    I would definitely go to Hawaii to show my support, so much to see.

    • You cant go anywhere closer to the summit than the highway that goes around the caldera to the north, all of hawaii volcanoes national park is off limits to avoid injury if rocks fall on spectators.

      The caldera wall is about something less than 100 meters on the north side, and is basically completely buried on the southwest side. It formed after the aila’au eruption that ended some time between 1470 and 1500, and it probably formed from a very big draining of the entire magma chamber during an event similar to the ongoing eruption but about 10 times bigger at least, somewhere on the puna ridge far from land and deep underwater. Some sources say the caldera formed over a long time during the aila’au eruption but that would violate the laws of gravity and this current event shows that things can happen very quickly so it isn’t really necessary to use this idea.

  23. Looking at the stratified layers at Halemaʻumaʻu crater, how many years back are we looking in those layers?

    Is this recent activity or decades of ash deposits?

    From HVO Observation Tower
    2018-06-21 16:54:04 (HST)

    • The rock in that cliff is 250 years old at maximum, the caldera was near empty in 1790, so everything in it is younger than that. The lava last spilled out of halemaumau in 1921 so that is the top layer.
      Kilauea changes very quickly, in 50 years there could be no deep crater at all and instead a vigorous overflowing summit vent that overflows the caldera like there was 600 years ago. Or instead there could be a lot of tephra from massive fountains like the ones that happened after the last caldera. Or there could even be both…
      This eruption won’t collapse the magma chamber so a new eruption won’t be too far around the corner.
      The almost 90 years of relative consistency at the summit is unusual and derives from the centre of eruption being on the east rift. Before 1924 the caldera was a very dynamic place and it will likely be the same way from now onwards too. One of the reasons I want to go there so much.

  24. The collapse is extending northeast/southwest along the shallow system between kilauea iki and the southwest rift. This bit might not become a new crater or part of the existing one but the ground has definitely lowered a lot. It is almost like a rock glacier with how fluidly the ground moves on a gentle slope.

    I think I have finally got it figured out. The the very important major difference between this and 1924 is in where the drainage is happening from. In 1924 the summit didn’t visibly subside as much and the crater formed then could have been from the former conduit of the lava lake filling in, but the drainage was much deeper though and this is supported by deflation for a long time (several years I think) over a much wider area of the volcano than is observed now, and also the slower nature of the event, with the summit draining out a long time before the quakes on the east rift started. The current collapse is from a shallower drainage system and directly from the main magma chamber, and the magma system at very shallow depths in the caldera is probably bigger than in 1924, so this shallow system is draining out a lot and causing a much wider collapse but there is no really wide deep inflation that there was in 1924 because the lower system is completely unaffected by this event, seeing as the new dike is only new past pu’u o’o. The summit also only began to respond about 5 days after the intrusion had reached the area and an eruption had already started, something in common with the 1955 and 1960 eruptions but not 1840 or 1924 were the summit responded before the lower rift activity happened (6 weeks in 1924, a few days in 1840).
    This might have been the case in 1790 too, and maybe even when the caldera itself actually formed (eruptions apparently happened frequently after that so it didn’t go dormant afterwards), but the 1840 and 1924 events, both of which lead to significant declines in eruptive activity afterwards, were fed by dikes stemming directly from the deep feeder system as well as the summit chamber, so they lead to a much more damaging drain out of the system. If 1924 erupted on land it probably would have been similar to the 1840 event with the composition being primitive basalt.
    Some of this magma that did start rising up could have been the source for the first 1955 eruptions, and also the andesite at fissure 17, so I guess it did eventually erupt just 31 and 94 years later 😉
    Related to this idea, the 1823 eruption created a collapse crater much bigger than even the current one, basically the entire caldera collapsed at least 100 meters based on the reports by Ellis and his crew describing a wide ledge around the caldera far above the active lava they observed. They arrived there a month or so after the fissure happened. That drain out was very shallow and so the eruptive activity resumed quickly and at a rapid rate again despite the massive visible damage to the surface.

    Basically if you imagine two water containers connected by a pipe, and another pipe going into the bottom of the lower one, summit eruptions and the 1823 event are fed from the smaller top one. Larger east rift eruptions (1955,1960,mauna ulu, pu’u o’o, 2018) are fed from about 1/3 to 1/2 down the side of the big bottom one, and much rarer deep ruptures like 1924 and 1840 are breaking the pipe feeding the into the bottom one. Draining from the lower chamber will completely drain the shallow upper one and cause a big collapse but it will refill relatively quickly and resume as normal, but breaking the pipe at the very bottom will cause a drain of the entire system and take a long time to fix. This eruption now is very big but is still draining out of the main chamber so it can only go so far and is not going to completely compromise the system. The leveling off of the deflation that seems to be showing at uwekahuna might indicate this is reaching the point where pressure is starting to stop and the eruption will probably decline a lot at some point next week.

    This is a really simplified picture of everything I just talked about above.

    It would be great if HVO could make an actual coloured map of the caldera now so we can see how big it is exactly in relation to everything else.

    • Oh also, USGS has said on their facebook that they consider the difference between a caldera and a ‘collapse crater’ to be whether it is over 1 mile wide. That means this collapse is in fact a true caldera, though still a lot smaller than the one that formed what we usually call kilauea caldera.

      That means kilauea iki, makaopuhi and napau craters are also borderline calderas too, I think the maximum diameters are a bit over 1 mile for kilauea iki and makaopuhi (a bit less for napau) but they are not circular so the average is less than 1 mile meaning they are technically too small.
      It is interesting how kilauea has a lot of pit craters quite far from the summit down the rift zone but mauna loa doesn’t.

      • Halemaʻumaʻu has been a nested caldera for over 2 weeks now but the USGS just don’t want to cause confusion or undue alarm which is understandable by reclassifying it. If it were to continue and then subsidence occurs out over the southern rim of the larger caldera it would then become an overlapped caldera…

        • A caldera by any other name is a… caldera.

          → Death by committee… ←

          Unless of course you’re Caldera, then you buy naming rights to SCO and sue every one using backdoor funding by a M$ operatives in order to sully the name of a superior product… and still generally fail.

        • No-one has any problem calling mt st helens’ avalanche scar a ‘caldera’ even though it is both smaller in diameter than halemaumau is now and not as deep, and didnt form in a magma chamber collapse, meaning it really isn’t even in the USGS definition of a caldera.
          No-one would say pinatubo’s caldera isnt a caldera even though again it is not a proper collapse feature and is only slightly bigger than the new halemaumau (2.5 km vs 2.2 km respectively).
          If a caldera has to cover new previously untouched ground to count as a caldera then the massive holes formed by the most recent eruptions of krakatau, tambora, campi flegri and taupo are not calderas either because they happened within older structures… The only reason for them

          People really forget how gigantic kilauea is as a volcano because it happens to be relatively flat and sits next to mauna loa, but all of the lava erupted over the lifetime of every single active terrestrial volcano in north america could probably fit inside the volume of kilauea with room to spare. This current eruption is the effusive equivalent of a VEI 4, and the thermal energy release is equivalent to at least a moderate VEI 5, or about 3 tsar bombas…

  25. Hello, forgive me for out theme, I’m Sicilian, a friend of Etna, I love volcanoes since I was a child. Someone knows more accurate estimates of volume of VEI-8, VEI-7 eruptions produced by Tondano caldera? I red the Carl’s previous articles about Tondano, but there aren’t precise estimates.
    Thank you so much!

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